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Anterograde transport of tritiated amino acids (leucine, lysine, and proline) was used to examine the spinal projections of respiratory premotor neurons in the ventral respiratory group (VRG) of cats. This population of neurons corresponds anatomically with the nucleus ambiguus-retroambigualis. Small volumes (20 to 50 nl) of tritiated amino acids were(More)
The responses in respiratory outflow resulting from microstimulation and successive microlesions of the dorsal (DRG) and ventral (VRG) respiratory groups of neurons in the brainstem were studied in anesthetized, paralyzed, artificially ventilated cats. Microstimulation (2 to 120 Hz; 5 to 50 microA; 100 musec pulse duration) at almost every point within the(More)
An investigation of the importance of water contact, cooling, and apnea to the development of the diving reflex in humans was performed in two experimental series. The first series involved exposure of different parts of the face to direct water contact, while the second consisted of face immersion in water baths of varying temperatures. Data were obtained(More)
The major purpose of the present study was to determine the origin of the serotonin-containing neurons which project to the rostral ventral respiratory group in the rat. This was accomplished by using the technique of retrograde tracing with rhodamine-labeled latex microspheres (beads) combined with immunochemistry. The rhodamine-labeled beads were(More)
The local neural circuitry underlying the control of breathing was studied by injecting nanoliter volumes of excitatory amino acids into discrete regions of cat brain stem. Experiments were performed on chloralose-urethane anesthetized, vagotomized, paralyzed, and artificially ventilated cats. Phrenic, intercostal, and recurrent laryngeal nerve discharges(More)
The influence of carotid sinus baroreceptor activity on the termination of inspiration by intercostal nerve stimulation was assessed in decerebrate cats which were paralyzed, artificially ventilated and bilaterally vagotomized. The carotid sinus was vascularly isolated bilaterally so that carotid sinus pressure could be precisely controlled independent of(More)
The projections of phrenic nerve afferents to neurons in the dorsal (DRG) and ventral (VRG) respiratory group were studied in anesthetized, paralyzed, and vagotomized cats. Extracellular recordings of neuronal responses to vagal nerve and cervical phrenic nerve stimulation (CPNS) indicated that about one-fourth of the DRG respiratory-modulated neurons were(More)
1. The involvement of nitric oxide (NO) in the respiratory function of the pons was examined by microinjecting NO synthase-related drugs into discrete regions of the pontine respiratory group (PRG) in decerebrate and decerebellate cats. 2. Microinjection of N omega-nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA, inhibitor of NO synthase), but not D-NNA (the inactive enantiomer),(More)
Short latency phrenic motor responses to phrenic nerve stimulation were studied in anesthetized, paralyzed cats. Electrical stimulation (0.2 ms, 0.01-10 mA, 2 Hz) of the right C5 phrenic rootlet during inspiration consistently elicited a transient reduction in the phrenic motor discharge. This attenuation occurred bilaterally with an onset latency of 8-12(More)