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Short-interfering RNAs suppress gene expression through a highly regulated enzyme-mediated process called RNA interference (RNAi). RNAi involves multiple RNA-protein interactions characterized by four major steps: assembly of siRNA with the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), activation of the RISC, target recognition and target cleavage. These(More)
The tumour microenvironment can be a potent carcinogen, not only by facilitating cancer progression and activating dormant cancer cells, but also by stimulating tumour formation. We have previously investigated stromelysin-1/matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3), a stromal enzyme upregulated in many breast tumours, and found that MMP-3 can cause(More)
Off-target gene silencing can present a notable challenge in the interpretation of data from large-scale RNA interference (RNAi) screens. We performed a detailed analysis of off-targeted genes identified by expression profiling of human cells transfected with small interfering RNA (siRNA). Contrary to common assumption, analysis of the subsequent off-target(More)
To provide a systematic analysis of genes that regulate epithelial cell migration, we performed a high throughput wound healing screen with MCF-10A breast epithelial cells, using siRNAs targeting 1,081 human genes encoding phosphatases, kinases and proteins predicted to influence cell migration and adhesion. The primary screen identified three categories of(More)
Transfected siRNAs regulate numerous transcripts sharing limited complementarity to the RNA duplex. This unintended ("off-target") silencing can hinder the use of RNAi to define gene function. Here we describe position-specific, sequence-independent chemical modifications that reduced silencing of partially complementary transcripts by all siRNAs tested.(More)
Long (27-29-bp dsRNA) Dicer-dependent substrates have been identified as potent mediators of RNAi-induced gene knockdown in HEK293 and HeLa cells. As the lengths of these molecules are reported to be below the threshold generally regarded as necessary for induction of the mammalian interferon (IFN) response, these long siRNA are being considered as RNAi(More)
RNA interference offers a novel approach for developing therapeutics for dominant-negative genetic disorders. The ability to inhibit expression of the mutant allele without affecting wild-type gene expression could be a powerful new treatment option. Targeting the single-nucleotide keratin 6a (K6a) N171K mutation responsible for the rare monogenic skin(More)
BACKGROUND Mesenchymal stem (MS) cells are excellent candidates for cell-based therapeutic strategies to regenerate injured tissue. Although human MS cells can be isolated from bone marrow and directed to differentiate by means of an osteogenic pathway, the regulation of cell-fate determination is not well understood. Recent reports identify critical roles(More)
Metastatic prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the leading causes of death from cancer in men. The molecular mechanisms underlying the transition from localized tumor to hormone-refractory metastatic PCa remain largely unknown, and their identification is key for predicting prognosis and targeted therapy. Here we demonstrated that increased expression of a(More)
Polycistronic pre-mRNAs from Caenorhabditis elegans are processed by 3' end formation of the upstream mRNA and SL2-specific trans-splicing of the downstream mRNA. These processes usually occur within an approximately 100-nucleotide region and are mechanistically coupled. In this paper, we report a complex in C. elegans extracts containing the 3' end(More)