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The authors consider three aspects of managing fatigue in the workplace. They provide a brief overview of important scientific findings related to sleep and circadian physiology that establish the psychobiological foundation of fatigue. Their major focus is on the relevance of these findings to operational settings. In addition, they provide examples to(More)
We monitored 32 flight crewmembers before, during, and after 4-9 d commercial long-haul trips crossing up to 8 time zones per 24 h. The average duty day lasted 9.8 h, and the average layover 24.8 h. Layover sleep episodes averaged 105 min shorter than pretrip sleep episodes. However, in two-thirds of layovers, crewmembers slept twice so that their total(More)
The need for 24-h operations creates nonstandard and altered work schedules that can lead to cumulative sleep loss and circadian disruption. These factors can lead to fatigue and sleepiness and affect performance and productivity on the job. The approach, research, and results of the NASA Ames Fatigue Countermeasures Program are described to illustrate one(More)
We monitored 34 B-727 crewmembers before, during, and after 8-d commercial overnight cargo trips crossing no more than one time zone per 24 h. Daytime sleep episodes were 41% shorter and were rated as poorer than nighttime sleep episodes. When the layover was long enough, crewmembers usually slept again in the evening before going back on night duty.(More)
In 1980, NASA-Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA, initiated a program to assess flight crew fatigue, determine its potential operational consequences, and provide practical countermeasure suggestions. To assess the extent of the problem, crewmembers were monitored before, during, and after commercial short-haul (fixed-wing and helicopter aircraft),(More)
Decreased alertness and performance associated with fatigue, sleep loss, and circadian disruption are issues faced by a diverse range of shiftwork operations personnel. During Space Transportation System (STS) operations, Mission Operations Directorate (MOD) personnel provide 24-hr. coverage of critical tasks. A joint NASA Johnson Space Center and NASA Ames(More)
Creating and disseminating knowledge is the goal of research. This is accomplished through critical analysis of systematically collected and clearly reported information. Critical analysis begins with the simple step of looking at the data collected prior to applying complex statistical analysis to make comparisons. Statistical analysis is approached in a(More)
The goal of health research is to develop new knowledge for action to improve health. Relevant health research includes study of diseases, their causes and their treatment/prevention as well as structure and utilisation of health services and policies to improve lung health. As resources are not infinite, priorities must be established. These are determined(More)
This article raises ethical issues that result if individuals, during the course of research to measure the prevalence of drug-resistant tuberculosis, are identified with the disease but are not provided with or referred for appropriate treatment. It draws attention to and applauds recently published World Health Organization guidelines on the subject.(More)