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The breathing motor pattern in mammals originates in brainstem networks. Whether pacemaker neurons play an obligatory role remains a key unanswered question. We performed whole-cell recordings in the preBotzinger Complex in slice preparations from neonatal rodents and tested for pacemaker activity. We observed persistent Na+ current (I(NaP))-mediated(More)
BACKGROUND Glial cells are more numerous than neurons in the cortex and are crucial to neuronal function. There is evidence for reduced neuronal size in schizophrenia, with suggestive evidence for reduced glial cell density in mood disorders. In this investigation, we have simultaneously assessed glial cell density and neuronal density and size in the(More)
Inspiratory neurons of the preBötzinger complex (preBötC) form local excitatory networks and display 10-30 mV transient depolarizations, dubbed inspiratory drive potentials, with superimposed spiking. AMPA receptors are critical for rhythmogenesis under normal conditions in vitro but whether other postsynaptic mechanisms contribute to drive potential(More)
Using a stereological method, the optical disector, we examined three inbred strains of mice (NZB/BINJ, DBA/2, and C57BL/6J) for morphological differences in volume, neuronal number, and density of the pyramidal cell and dentate gyrus granule cell layers of the hippocampus. We found significant differences in volume and neuronal number for both regions(More)
Breathing movements in mammals depend on respiratory neurons in the preBötzinger Complex (preBötC), which comprise a rhythmic network and generate robust bursts that form the basis for inspiration. Persistent Na(+) current (I(NaP)) is widespread in the preBötC and is hypothesized to play a critical role in rhythm generation because of its subthreshold(More)
Phox2b is required for development of the peripheral autonomic nervous system and a subset of cranial nerves and lower brainstem nuclei. Phox2b mutations in man cause diffuse autonomic dysfunction and deficits in the automatic control of breathing. Here we study the distribution of Phox2b in the adult rat hindbrain to determine whether this protein is(More)
Rats whose right eyes were enucleated on day 1 after birth and nonenucleated rats were raised in either "light" or "dark" (red light) conditions from birth until 39 days of age. This resulted in 4 groups of animals: light-reared nonenucleated, light-reared enucleated, dark-reared nonenucleated, and dark-reared enucleated. At 39 days of age, the animals were(More)
An 81-year-old man with retinitis pigmentosa had severe, slowly progressive visual loss that began at age 20. Intermittent nystagmus was observed for 1 decade. Examination revealed severe retinal atrophy and periodic alternating nystagmus (PAN) that occurred only in darkness (video on the Neurology ® Web site at www.neurology.org). PAN refers to horizontal(More)
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