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The breathing motor pattern in mammals originates in brainstem networks. Whether pacemaker neurons play an obligatory role remains a key unanswered question. We performed whole-cell recordings in the preBotzinger Complex in slice preparations from neonatal rodents and tested for pacemaker activity. We observed persistent Na+ current (I(NaP))-mediated(More)
Inspiratory neurons of the preBötzinger complex (preBötC) form local excitatory networks and display 10-30 mV transient depolarizations, dubbed inspiratory drive potentials, with superimposed spiking. AMPA receptors are critical for rhythmogenesis under normal conditions in vitro but whether other postsynaptic mechanisms contribute to drive potential(More)
Using a stereological method, the optical disector, we examined three inbred strains of mice (NZB/BINJ, DBA/2, and C57BL/6J) for morphological differences in volume, neuronal number, and density of the pyramidal cell and dentate gyrus granule cell layers of the hippocampus. We found significant differences in volume and neuronal number for both regions(More)
Breathing movements in mammals depend on respiratory neurons in the preBötzinger Complex (preBötC), which comprise a rhythmic network and generate robust bursts that form the basis for inspiration. Persistent Na(+) current (I(NaP)) is widespread in the preBötC and is hypothesized to play a critical role in rhythm generation because of its subthreshold(More)
Phox2b is required for development of the peripheral autonomic nervous system and a subset of cranial nerves and lower brainstem nuclei. Phox2b mutations in man cause diffuse autonomic dysfunction and deficits in the automatic control of breathing. Here we study the distribution of Phox2b in the adult rat hindbrain to determine whether this protein is(More)
The proficiency of nonophthalmologists with direct ophthalmoscopy is poor, which has prompted a search for alternative technologies to examine the ocular fundus. Although ocular fundus photography has existed for decades, its use has been traditionally restricted to ophthalmology clinical care settings and textbooks. Recent research has shown a role for(More)
Declining proficiency in direct ophthalmoscopy by non-ophthalmologists has spurred a search for alternative methods of ocular fundus examination. Recent technological advances have improved the ease of use and quality of non-mydriatic fundus photography, increasing its suitability for clinical care. As the availability of this technology continues to(More)
An 81-year-old man with retinitis pigmentosa had severe, slowly progressive visual loss that began at age 20. Intermittent nystagmus was observed for 1 decade. Examination revealed severe retinal atrophy and periodic alternating nystagmus (PAN) that occurred only in darkness (video on the Neurology ® Web site at www.neurology.org). PAN refers to horizontal(More)
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