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Viruses are a common threat to cellular life, not the least to bacteria and archaea who constitute the majority of life on Earth. Consequently, a variety of mechanisms to resist virus infection has evolved. A recent discovery is the adaptive immune system in prokaryotes, a type of system previously thought to be present only in vertebrates. The system,(More)
Methods that permit controlled changes in the expression of genes are important tools for biological and medical research, and for biotechnological applications. Conventional methods are directed at individually changing each gene, its regulatory elements or its mRNA's translation rate. We demonstrate that the CRISPR-associated DNA-binding Cascade complex(More)
The CspA family of cold shock genes in Escherichia coli K-12 includes nine paralogs, cspA to cspI. Some of them have been implicated in cold stress adaptation. Screening for mutations among common laboratory E. coli strains showed a high degree of genetic diversity in cspC but not in cspA and cspE. This diversity in cspC was due to a wide spectrum of(More)
Polynucleotide phosphorylase (PNPase), a multifunctional protein, is a 3'→5' exoribonuclease or exoDNase in the presence of inorganic phosphate (P(i)), and extends a 3'-OH of RNA or ssDNA in the presence of ADP or dADP. In Escherichia coli, PNPase is known to protect against H(2)O(2)- and mitomycin C-induced damage. Recent reports show that Bacillus(More)
The repair of DNA damage caused by ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is well understood in both lower and higher organisms. Genetic studies carried out at optimum temperature for growth, 37 °C in Escherichia coli, have revealed the major pathways of DNA repair. We show that E. coli cells grown at 20 °C are more sensitive to UVR than cells grown at 37 °C. The(More)
In this paper, we describe a new mutation, gicD1, that gives a cold-sensitive phenotype in bacterial cell growth. Complementation analysis showed gicD1 to be allelic to infB. We identify gicD1 to be a valine to isoleucine substitution in initiation factor-2 (IF2) of a residue that seems to be well conserved in eubacterial IF2 proteins. This mutation lies in(More)
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