Devasena Gnanashanmugam

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Consensus case definitions for childhood tuberculosis have been proposed by an international expert panel, aiming to standardize the reporting of cases in research focusing on the diagnosis of intrathoracic tuberculosis in children. These definitions are intended for tuberculosis diagnostic evaluation studies of symptomatic children with clinical suspicion(More)
BACKGROUND Randomized-trial data on the risks and benefits of antiretroviral therapy (ART) as compared with zidovudine and single-dose nevirapine to prevent transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in HIV-infected pregnant women with high CD4 counts are lacking. METHODS We randomly assigned HIV-infected women at 14 or more weeks of gestation(More)
Childhood tuberculosis contributes significantly to the global tuberculosis disease burden but remains challenging to diagnose due to inadequate methods of pathogen detection in paucibacillary pediatric samples and lack of a child-specific host biomarker to identify disease. Accurately diagnosing tuberculosis in children is required to improve case(More)
BACKGROUND Poliovirus eradication is dependent on maintaining adequate community-wide levels of serologic protection. Many African countries with conditions that favor continued wild poliovirus propagation also have a high prevalence of pediatric human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Data are limited regarding the degree of serologic immunity(More)
Tuberculosis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in women of childbearing age (15-44 years). Despite increased tuberculosis risk during pregnancy, optimal clinical treatment remains unclear: safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetic data for many tuberculosis drugs are lacking, and trials of promising new tuberculosis drugs exclude pregnant women.(More)
BACKGROUND Novel diagnostics have been widely applied across human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and tuberculosis prevention and treatment programs. To achieve the greatest impact, HIV and tuberculosis diagnostic programs must carefully plan and implement within the context of a specific healthcare system and the laboratory capacity. METHODS A workshop was(More)
A uracil-to-cytosine mutation at nucleotide position 472 of oral poliovirus vaccine type 3 (OPV3) contributes to the development of vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis (VAPP). To analyze OPV3 shedding patterns, we previously used the multistep method of mutant analysis by PCR and enzyme cleavage (MAPREC). This involves conventional reverse(More)
: On 5-6 May 2016, the division of AIDS of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases convened a workshop on 'HIV Birth Testing and Linkage to Care for HIV Infected Infants.' The goal of the workshop was to evaluate birth testing for early infant diagnosis (EID) of HIV, delineate technological resources for advancing a point-of-care (POC) HIV(More)
BACKGROUND Health benefits of postpartum antiretroviral therapy (ART) for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive women with high CD4+ T-counts have not been assessed in randomized trials. METHODS Asymptomatic, HIV-positive, non-breastfeeding women with pre-ART CD4+ T-cell counts ≥ 400 cells/mm3 started on ART during pregnancy were randomized up to 42(More)
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