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Bacterial populations produce persisters, cells that neither grow nor die in the presence of bactericidal agents, and thus exhibit multidrug tolerance (MDT). The mechanisms of MDT and the nature of persisters have remained elusive. Our previous research has shown that persisters are largely responsible for the recalcitrance of biofilm infections. A general(More)
We describe an implementation of a threads library that provides extremely lightweight threads within a single UNIX process while allowing fully concurrent access to system resources. The threads are lightweight enough so that they can be created quickly, there can be thousands present, and synchronization can be accomplished rapidly. These goals are(More)
We describe a model for multiple threads of control within a single UNIX process. The main goals are to provide extremely lightweight threads and to rationalize and extend the UNIX Application Programming Interface for a multi-threaded environment. The threads are intended to be sufficiently lightweight so that there can be thousands present and that(More)
BACKGROUND Bacterial populations contain persisters, phenotypic variants that constitute approximately 1% of cells in stationary phase and biofilm cultures. Multidrug tolerance of persisters is largely responsible for the inability of antibiotics to completely eradicate infections. Recent progress in understanding persisters is encouraging, but the main(More)
The herbicide glyphosate is a potent inhibitor of the enzyme 5-enolpyruvylshikimate- 3-phosphate (EPSP) synthase in higher plants. A complementary DNA (cDNA) clone encoding EPSP synthase was isolated from a complementary DNA library of a glyphosate-tolerant Petunia hybrida cell line (MP4-G) that overproduces the enzyme. This cell line was shown to(More)
During the 1980's the use of computers and information technologies began to have an impact on higher education As an integral part of this trend, in 1983 MIT in partnership with the Digital Equipment Corporation and the IBM Corporation launched Project Athena which was designed to make computation available to undergraduate students through a network of(More)
Background: Bacterial populations contain persisters, phenotypic variants that constitute approximately 1% of cells in stationary phase and biofilm cultures. Multidrug tolerance of persisters is largely responsible for the inability of antibiotics to completely eradicate infections. Recent progress in understanding persisters is encouraging, but the main(More)
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