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BACKGROUND Drug resistance among tuberculosis patients in sub-Saharan Africa is increasing, possibly due to association with HIV infection. We studied drug resistance and HIV infection in a representative sample of 533 smear-positive tuberculosis patients diagnosed in Kampala, Uganda. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS Among 473 new patients, multidrug resistance(More)
BACKGROUND Multidrug resistant and extensively drug resistant tuberculosis (TB) have become major threats to control of tuberculosis globally. The rates of anti-TB drug resistance in Uganda are not known. We conducted a national drug resistance survey to investigate the levels and patterns of resistance to first and second line anti-TB drugs among new and(More)
BACKGROUND Prevalence of multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB), defined as in vitro resistance to both rifampicin and isoniazid with or without resistance to other TB drugs, in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is reportedly low compared to other regions. These estimates are based on data reported to the World Health Organization (WHO) on drug resistance(More)
Surveillance of the circulating Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) strains in a given locality is important for understanding tuberculosis (TB) epidemiology. We performed molecular epidemiological studies on sputum smear-positive isolates that were collected for anti-TB drug resistance surveillance to establish the variability of MTC lineages with(More)
BACKGROUND The global increase in the burden of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) underscores an urgent need for data on factors involved in generation and spread of TB drug resistance. We performed molecular analyses on a representative sample of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) isolates. Basing on findings of the molecular epidemiological study in(More)
BACKGROUND The global tuberculosis (TB) estimate in 2011 was 500,000 cases among children under 15 years representing 5.7 % of all cases and 64, 000 deaths among HIV negative children representing 6.5 % of the total deaths. In Uganda, the child TB cases reported in 2012 made up less than 3 % of the total cases while recent modelling estimates it at 15-20 %(More)
BACKGROUND Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is considered to be less transmissible due to the fitness cost associated with drug resistance-conferring mutations in essential genes. OBJECTIVE To test the hypothesis that TB drug resistance-conferring mutations with fitness cost are more frequent among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive than(More)
Understanding the circulating Mycobacterium tuberculosis resistance mutations is vital for better TB control strategies, especially to inform a new MDR-TB treatment programme. We complemented the phenotypic drug susceptibility testing (DST) based drug resistance surveys (DRSs) conducted in Uganda between 2008 and 2011 with Whole Genome Sequencing (WGS) of(More)
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