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When do multiple representations of information in second-language learning help and when do they hinder learning? English-speaking college students (N=152), enrolled in a second year German course, read a 762-word German story presented by a multimedia computer program. Students received no annotations, verbal annotations, visual annotations, or both for(More)
One hundred and eleven 10th graders read an expository science text on the dipole character of water molecules (ca. 1600 words). Reading instruction was varied according to a 2 Â 2 experimental design with factors 'drawing pictures of text content on paper' (yes, no) and 'mentally imagining text content while reading' (yes, no). The results indicate that(More)
In two pilot experiments, a new approach for the direct assessment of cognitive load during multimedia learning was tested that uses dual-task methodology. Using this approach, we obtained the same pattern of cognitive load as predicted by cognitive load theory when applied to multimedia learning: The audiovisual presentation of text-based and picture-based(More)
Core knowledge and working memory as prerequisites of early school arithmetic Abstract Recent studies showed that kindergarten children solve addition, subtraction, doubling and halving problems using the core system for the approximate representation of numerical magnitude. In Study 1, 34 first-grade students in their first week of schooling solved(More)