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English-speaking college students who were enrolled in a German course read a 762-word German language story presented by a computer program. For key words in the story, students could choose to see a translation on the screen in English (i.e., verbal annotation) or view a picture or video clip representing the word (i.e,, visual annotation), or both.(More)
Cognitive load theory (CLT) is gaining increasing importance in the design and evaluation of instruction , both traditional and technology based. Although it is well understood as a theoretical construct, the measurement of cognitive load induced by instructional materials in general, and by multimedia instruction in particular, mainly relies on methods(More)
When do multiple representations of information in second-language learning help and when do they hinder learning? English-speaking college students (N=152), enrolled in a second year German course, read a 762-word German story presented by a multimedia computer program. Students received no annotations, verbal annotations, visual annotations, or both for(More)
One hundred and eleven 10th graders read an expository science text on the dipole character of water molecules (ca. 1600 words). Reading instruction was varied according to a 2 Â 2 experimental design with factors 'drawing pictures of text content on paper' (yes, no) and 'mentally imagining text content while reading' (yes, no). The results indicate that(More)
In two pilot experiments, a new approach for the direct assessment of cognitive load during multimedia learning was tested that uses dual-task methodology. Using this approach, we obtained the same pattern of cognitive load as predicted by cognitive load theory when applied to multimedia learning: The audiovisual presentation of text-based and picture-based(More)
In a series of three experiments, the effect of marker duration on temporal discrimination was evaluated with empty auditory intervals bounded by markers ranging from 3 to 300 msec or presented as a gap within a continuous tone. As a measure of performance, difference thresholds in relation to a base duration of 50 msec were computed. Performance on(More)