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Stress is known to enhance the abuse of various drugs. Although the effects of chronic stress and the neurotoxicity of methamphetamine (METH) are influenced, in part, by hyperthermia, the role of hyperthermia in the hypothesized stress-induced enhancement of METH-induced dopamine (DA) and serotonin depletions and decreases in vesicular monoamine transporter(More)
AIMS Methamphetamine is an amphetamine derivative that is abused increasingly world-wide at an alarming rate over the last decade. Pre-clinical and human studies have shown that methamphetamine is neurotoxic to brain dopamine and serotonin. Other lines of study indicate that stress enhances the vulnerability to drug abuse. The purpose of this review is to(More)
Corticosterone (CORT), the predominant glucocorticoid in rodents, elevated for 21 days damages hippocampal subregion CA3. We tested the hypothesis that CORT would impair spatial memory, a hippocampal function. In each of the three experiments, rats received daily, subcutaneous injections of either CORT (26.8 mg/kg body weight in sesame oil) or sesame oil(More)
Individuals with clinical disorders associated with elevated plasma glucocorticoids, such as major depressive disorder and Cushing's syndrome, are reported to have smaller hippocampal volume. To understand how the hippocampus responds at the cellular and subcellular levels to glucocorticoids and how such changes are related to volume measures, we have(More)
Glucocorticoids (GCs) are hormones secreted by the adrenal glands as an endocrine response to stress. Although the main purpose of GCs is to restore homeostasis when acutely elevated, animal studies indicate that chronic exposure to these hormones can cause damage to the hippocampus. This is indicated by reductions in hippocampal volume, and changes in(More)
Corticosterone (CORT), the predominant glucocorticoid in rodents, is known to damage hippocampal area CA3. Here we investigate how that damage is represented at the cellular and ultrastructural level of analyses. Rats were injected with CORT (26.8 mg/kg, s.c.) or vehicle for 56 days. Cell counts were estimated with the physical disector method. Glial and(More)
Striking parallels exist between the neurochemical and toxic effects of stress and methamphetamine. Despite these similarities, no studies have examined how stress may promote the toxic effects of methamphetamine (METH). The current study tested the hypothesis that chronic stress enhances METH toxicity by augmenting glutamate (GLU) release and(More)
Numerous physiological conditions as well as behavioral conditions have been shown to influence central nervous system vascular structure. Many of the methods used to investigate these structural alterations take advantage of the visibility of viscous substances (e.g. India ink in gelatin) perfused into the vasculature. The high viscosity of the solution,(More)
Animal studies suggest that maternal separation, a widely used paradigm to study the effects of early life adversity, exerts a profound and life-long impact on both brain and behavior. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether adverse early life experiences interact with neonatal hypoxia-ischemia, affecting the outcome of this neurological(More)
Exposure to early-life stress is associated with long-term alterations in brain and behavior, and may aggravate the outcome of neurological insults. This study aimed at investigating the possible interaction between maternal separation, a model of early stress, and subsequent neonatal hypoxia-ischemia on emotional behavior and markers of synaptic plasticity(More)