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In this study, we used a mouse model to examine the role of the adaptive immune response in alveolar bone loss induced by oral infection with the human gram-negative anaerobic bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis. Severe combined immunodeficient mice, which lack B and T lymphocytes, exhibited considerably less bone loss than did immunocompetent mice after(More)
The MHC class I-like Fc receptor FcRn plays an essential role in extending the half-life (t(1/2)) of IgG antibodies and IgG-Fc-based therapeutics in the circulation. The goal of this study was to analyze the effect of human IgG1 (hIgG1) antibodies with enhanced in vitro binding to FcRn on their in vivo t(1/2) in mice expressing human FcRn (hFcRn). Mutants(More)
The neonatal Fc receptor for IgG (FcRn) has been well characterized in the transfer of passive humoral immunity from a mother to her fetus. In addition, throughout life, FcRn protects IgG from degradation, thereby explaining the long half-life of this class of antibody in the serum. In recent years, it has become clear that FcRn is expressed in various(More)
IL-21 is a type I cytokine whose receptor is expressed on T, B, and NK cells. Within the B cell lineage, IL-21 regulates IgG1 production and cooperates with IL-4 for the production of multiple Ab classes in vivo. Using IL-21-transgenic mice and hydrodynamics-based gene delivery of IL-21 plasmid DNA into wild-type mice as well as in vitro studies, we(More)
Improved affinity for the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) is known to extend antibody half-life in vivo. However, this has never been linked with enhanced therapeutic efficacy. We tested whether antibodies with half-lives extended up to fivefold in human (h)FcRn transgenic mice and threefold in cynomolgus monkeys retain efficacy at longer dosing intervals. We(More)
Interleukin 21 (IL-21) is a pleiotropic cytokine produced by CD4 T cells that affects the differentiation and function of T, B, and NK cells by binding to a receptor consisting of the common cytokine receptor gamma chain and the IL-21 receptor (IL-21R). IL-21, a product associated with IL-17-producing CD4 T cells (T(H)17) and follicular CD4 T helper cells(More)
Periodontal disease affects a large percentage of the human population. Resorption of the alveolar bone of the jaw is a pivotal sequela of periodontal disease, because this bone is the attachment site for the periodontal ligaments that anchor the teeth. Using a murine model in which alveolar bone loss is induced by oral infection with Porphyromonas(More)
In eutherian mammals, implantation and establishment of the chorioallantoic placenta are essential for embryo development and survival. As a maternal response to implantation, uterine stromal cells proliferate, differentiate, and generate the decidua, which encapsulates the conceptus and forms the maternal part of the placenta. Little is known about(More)
These experiments examine alveolar bone loss in a model in which specific pathogen-free mice are exposed orally with Porphyromonas gingivalis. Alveolar bone loss was induced as a result of a specific infection with P. gingivalis, rather than other environmental antigens. Infection with live P. gingivalis was required, as significant bone loss did not follow(More)
Mucosal secretions of the human gastrointestinal, respiratory, and genital tracts contain significant quantities of IgG. The mechanism by which IgG reaches luminal secretions and the function of IgG in these locations are unknown. Here, we find that the human neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) is the vehicle that transports IgG across the intestinal epithelial(More)