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BACKGROUND The increasing global burden of tuberculosis (TB) is linked to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. METHODS We reviewed data from notifications of TB cases, cohort treatment outcomes, surveys of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, and HIV prevalence in patients with TB and other subgroups. Information was collated from published(More)
Despite policies, strategies, and guidelines, the epidemic of HIV-associated tuberculosis continues to rage, particularly in southern Africa. We focus our attention on the regions with the greatest burden of disease, especially sub-Saharan Africa, and concentrate on prevention of tuberculosis in people with HIV infection, a challenge that has been greatly(More)
BACKGROUND Much concern has been expressed about the high prevalence of tuberculosis in prisons in industrialised countries. Since there is almost no information from developing countries, we investigated the rate of pulmonary tuberculosis in a large prison in Malawi. METHODS Between May and July, 1996; we carried out an active case-finding survey in(More)
Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) was administered by continuous subcutaneous infusion to 15 patients with non-myeloid malignancies treated by high-dose chemotherapy and autologous bone marrow infusion. G-CSF was given at variable dosage based on neutrophil count. Sustained serum levels of G-CSF were achieved. Neutrophil recovery was accelerated(More)
BACKGROUND Data on non-communicable disease (NCD) burden are often limited in developing countries in Africa but crucial for planning and implementation of prevention and control strategies. We assessed the prevalence of related cardiovascular disease risk factors (hyperglycaemia, high blood pressure and obesity) in a longstanding population cohort in rural(More)
BACKGROUND Although in developing countries the burden of morbidity and mortality due to infectious diseases has often overshadowed that due to chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs), there is evidence now of a shift of attention to NCDs. DISCUSSION Decreasing the chronic NCD burden requires a two-pronged approach: implementation of the multisectoral(More)
PROBLEM In Malawi, health-system constraints meant that only a fraction of people infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and in immediate need of antiretroviral treatment (ART) received treatment. APPROACH In 2004, the Malawian Ministry of Health launched plans to scale-up ART nationwide, adhering to the principle of equity to ensure fair(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate trends in all-cause adult mortality after the roll-out of an antiretroviral therapy (ART) programme in rural Uganda. METHODS Longitudinal population-based cohort study of approximately 20,000 residents in rural Uganda. Mortality in adults aged 15-59 years was determined for the 5-year period (1999-2003) before introduction of ART(More)