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BACKGROUND The increasing global burden of tuberculosis (TB) is linked to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. METHODS We reviewed data from notifications of TB cases, cohort treatment outcomes, surveys of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, and HIV prevalence in patients with TB and other subgroups. Information was collated from published(More)
Despite policies, strategies, and guidelines, the epidemic of HIV-associated tuberculosis continues to rage, particularly in southern Africa. We focus our attention on the regions with the greatest burden of disease, especially sub-Saharan Africa, and concentrate on prevention of tuberculosis in people with HIV infection, a challenge that has been greatly(More)
SETTING A rural district (Estie) in South Gonder, Ethiopia. OBJECTIVE To describe the contribution of 'TB clubs' (small support groups of patients based on where they live) to the performance of the tuberculosis control programme in Estie District. DESIGN A descriptive study of the formation of 'TB clubs', their contribution to case-finding and the(More)
BACKGROUND Tuberculosis is a leading cause worldwide of morbidity and mortality among HIV-infected people. The HIV era has seen a dramatic increase of the tuberculosis case fatality rate (CFR) in high HIV prevalence populations. Providing care for HIV-infected people must include measures to tackle this high tuberculosis CFR. AIMS To analyse the extent of(More)
SETTING Guguletu and Nyanga areas of Cape Town, South Africa. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the affordability and cost-effectiveness of community involvement in tuberculosis (TB) care. DESIGN A cost-effectiveness analysis comparing treatment for new smear-positive pulmonary and retreatment TB patients in two similar townships, one providing clinic-based-care(More)
Advisory Group for TB (STAG-TB) have endorsed this document. The TB/HIV Working Group is one of six working groups established under the auspices of the Global Partnership to Stop TB. The Strategic and Technical Advisory Group for TB is the advisory group which advises WHO on its TB control activities. DOTS The brand name of the internationally recommended(More)
BACKGROUND Much concern has been expressed about the high prevalence of tuberculosis in prisons in industrialised countries. Since there is almost no information from developing countries, we investigated the rate of pulmonary tuberculosis in a large prison in Malawi. METHODS Between May and July, 1996; we carried out an active case-finding survey in(More)
The development of WHO's DOTS strategy for the control of tuberculosis (TB) in 1995 led to the expansion, adaptation and improvement of operational research in this area. From being a patchwork of small-scale studies concerned with aspects of service delivery, TB operational research shifted to larger-scale, often multicountry projects that were also(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is fueling the tuberculosis (TB) epidemic, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. However, despite their close epidemiological links, the public health responses have largely been separate. WHO has set out a strategy to decrease the burden of HIV-related TB, comprising interventions against both TB and HIV. Voluntary(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess evidence for sexual behavior change in response to antiretroviral therapy (ART) among members of a Ugandan clinical cohort. Secondarily, to examine factors associated with both sexual behavior and ART independently, that may help to assess the impact that ART is likely to have on the HIV epidemic. DESIGN Retrospective analysis of data(More)