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BACKGROUND The increasing global burden of tuberculosis (TB) is linked to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. METHODS We reviewed data from notifications of TB cases, cohort treatment outcomes, surveys of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, and HIV prevalence in patients with TB and other subgroups. Information was collated from published(More)
The development of WHO's DOTS strategy for the control of tuberculosis (TB) in 1995 led to the expansion, adaptation and improvement of operational research in this area. From being a patchwork of small-scale studies concerned with aspects of service delivery, TB operational research shifted to larger-scale, often multicountry projects that were also(More)
Despite policies, strategies, and guidelines, the epidemic of HIV-associated tuberculosis continues to rage, particularly in southern Africa. We focus our attention on the regions with the greatest burden of disease, especially sub-Saharan Africa, and concentrate on prevention of tuberculosis in people with HIV infection, a challenge that has been greatly(More)
SETTING Guguletu and Nyanga areas of Cape Town, South Africa. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the affordability and cost-effectiveness of community involvement in tuberculosis (TB) care. DESIGN A cost-effectiveness analysis comparing treatment for new smear-positive pulmonary and retreatment TB patients in two similar townships, one providing clinic-based-care(More)
BACKGROUND Much concern has been expressed about the high prevalence of tuberculosis in prisons in industrialised countries. Since there is almost no information from developing countries, we investigated the rate of pulmonary tuberculosis in a large prison in Malawi. METHODS Between May and July, 1996; we carried out an active case-finding survey in(More)
Advisory Group for TB (STAG-TB) have endorsed this document. The TB/HIV Working Group is one of six working groups established under the auspices of the Global Partnership to Stop TB. The Strategic and Technical Advisory Group for TB is the advisory group which advises WHO on its TB control activities. DOTS The brand name of the internationally recommended(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is fueling the tuberculosis (TB) epidemic, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. However, despite their close epidemiological links, the public health responses have largely been separate. WHO has set out a strategy to decrease the burden of HIV-related TB, comprising interventions against both TB and HIV. Voluntary(More)
PREFACE The World Health Organization's Stop TB Department has prepared this third edition of Treatment of tuberculosis: guidelines for national programmes with the help of the International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease and experts worldwide. The aim is to give practical guidance to national tuberculosis programmes (NTPs) and the medical(More)
The overlap between the populations in sub-Saharan Africa infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and Mycobacterium tuberculosis has led to an upsurge in tuberculosis cases over the last 10 years. The relative increase in the proportion of notified sputum-smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) cases is greater than that of(More)
The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the World Health Organization concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities , or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. Dotted lines on maps(More)