Learn More
BACKGROUND The increasing global burden of tuberculosis (TB) is linked to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. METHODS We reviewed data from notifications of TB cases, cohort treatment outcomes, surveys of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, and HIV prevalence in patients with TB and other subgroups. Information was collated from published(More)
Despite policies, strategies, and guidelines, the epidemic of HIV-associated tuberculosis continues to rage, particularly in southern Africa. We focus our attention on the regions with the greatest burden of disease, especially sub-Saharan Africa, and concentrate on prevention of tuberculosis in people with HIV infection, a challenge that has been greatly(More)
BACKGROUND Tuberculosis is a leading cause worldwide of morbidity and mortality among HIV-infected people. The HIV era has seen a dramatic increase of the tuberculosis case fatality rate (CFR) in high HIV prevalence populations. Providing care for HIV-infected people must include measures to tackle this high tuberculosis CFR. AIMS To analyse the extent of(More)
BACKGROUND Respondent-driven sampling is a novel variant of link-tracing sampling for estimating the characteristics of hard-to-reach groups, such as HIV prevalence in sex workers. Despite its use by leading health organizations, the performance of this method in realistic situations is still largely unknown. We evaluated respondent-driven sampling by(More)
OBJECTIVE Population-based data on burden of hypertension are crucial for planning and implementation of prevention and control strategies but are often limited in developing countries in Africa. We assessed the prevalence of hypertension and related risk factors in a population cohort in rural Uganda initially established for HIV surveys. METHODS In a(More)
SETTING A rural district (Estie) in South Gonder, Ethiopia. OBJECTIVE To describe the contribution of 'TB clubs' (small support groups of patients based on where they live) to the performance of the tuberculosis control programme in Estie District. DESIGN A descriptive study of the formation of 'TB clubs', their contribution to case-finding and the(More)
SETTING Guguletu and Nyanga areas of Cape Town, South Africa. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the affordability and cost-effectiveness of community involvement in tuberculosis (TB) care. DESIGN A cost-effectiveness analysis comparing treatment for new smear-positive pulmonary and retreatment TB patients in two similar townships, one providing clinic-based-care(More)
BACKGROUND Much concern has been expressed about the high prevalence of tuberculosis in prisons in industrialised countries. Since there is almost no information from developing countries, we investigated the rate of pulmonary tuberculosis in a large prison in Malawi. METHODS Between May and July, 1996; we carried out an active case-finding survey in(More)
OBJECTIVES To describe the incidence and aetiology of septicaemia, and antimicrobial drug resistance in HIV-infected and uninfected individuals, and the impact of antiretroviral therapy (ART) on septicaemia. METHODS Between 1996 and 2007, we followed up a rural population-based cohort of HIV-infected and uninfected participants. The aetiology and(More)