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A new technique for coupling one dimensional beam elements to three dimensional bodies is described. The essence of the problem is to ensure compatibility of the displacements at the interface. This is achieved by equating the work done at the dimensional interface by the 3D nodes with the work done at the 1D node. This is carried out in a manner similar to… (More)

- Kar Wei Shim, Dermot J. Monaghan, Cecil G. Armstrong
- Engineering with Computers
- 2001

Many analysis models utilize finite elements of reduced dimension. However, to capture stress concentrations at local details, it would be desirable to combine the reduced dimensional element types with higher dimensional elements in a single finite element model. It is therefore important in such cases to integrate into the analyses some scheme for… (More)

A technique of idealising frame models using substructures is outlined. All joints are modelled in 3D but, using substructures, each 3D joint is converted to an equivalent stiffness element. The slender regions between the joints are modelled using beam elements. Coupling between the substructures and beam elements is carried out in a manner that conforms… (More)

Many practical finite element models contain long slender regions and areas where the thickness is small in relation to the other dimensions. The slender regions are best modelled using 1D beam elements, while shell or plate type elements should be used to represent any areas consisting of thin walls. These reduced element types are much more efficient than… (More)

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