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Predicting regime shifts - drastic changes in dynamic behaviour - is a key challenge in ecology and other fields. Here we show that the class of ecological systems that will exhibit leading indicators of regime shifts is limited, and that there is a set of ecological models and, therefore, also likely to be a class of natural systems for which there will be(More)
Nuclear-associated oscillations in calcium act as a secondary messenger in the symbiotic signaling pathway of legumes. These are decoded by a nuclear-localized calcium and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase, the activation of which is sufficient to drive downstream responses. This implies that the calcium oscillations within the nucleus are the predominant(More)
Legume plants form beneficial symbiotic interactions with nitrogen fixing bacteria (called rhizobia), with the rhizobia being accommodated in unique structures on the roots of the host plant. The legume/rhizobial symbiosis is responsible for a significant proportion of the global biologically available nitrogen. The initiation of this symbiosis is governed(More)
Legumes form symbioses with rhizobial bacteria and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi that aid plant nutrition. A critical component in the establishment of these symbioses is nuclear-localized calcium (Ca(2+)) oscillations. Different components on the nuclear envelope have been identified as being required for the generation of the Ca(2+) oscillations. Among(More)
Many real ecological systems show sudden changes in behavior, phenomena sometimes categorized as regime shifts in the literature. The relative importance of exogenous versus endogenous forces producing regime shifts is an important question. These forces' role in generating variability over time in ecological systems has been explored using tools from(More)
Calcium signalling relies on the flux of calcium ions across membranes yet how signals in different compartments are related remains unclear. In particular, similar calcium signals on both sides of the nuclear envelope have been reported and attributed to passive diffusion through nuclear pores. However, observed differing cytosolic and nucleosolic calcium(More)
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