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A simple labeling approach is presented based on protein expression in [1-(13)C]- or [2-(13)C]-glucose containing media that produces molecules enriched at methyl carbon positions or backbone C(alpha) sites, respectively. All of the methyl groups, with the exception of Thr and Ile(delta1) are produced with isolated (13)C spins (i.e., no (13)C-(13)C one bond(More)
The focus of structural biology is on studies of the highly populated, ground states of biological molecules; states that are only sparsely and transiently populated are more difficult to probe because they are invisible to most structural methods. Yet, such states can play critical roles in biochemical processes such as ligand binding, enzyme catalysis,(More)
Currently the main focus of structural biology is the determination of static three-dimensional representations of biomolecules that for the most part correspond to low energy (ground state) conformations. However, it is becoming increasingly well recognized that higher energy structures often play important roles in function as well. Because these(More)
A variety of enzymes are activated by the binding of potassium ions. The potassium binding sites of these enzymes are very specific, but ammonium ions can often replace potassium ions in vitro because of their similar ionic radii. In these cases, ammonium can be used as a proxy for potassium to characterise potassium binding sites in enzymes: the (1) H,(15)(More)
Solution- and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy are highly complementary techniques for studying supra-molecular structure. Here they are employed for investigating the molecular chaperone αB-crystallin, a polydisperse ensemble of between 10 and 40 identical subunits with an average molecular mass of approximately 600 kDa. An IxI(More)
A method for quantifying millisecond time scale exchange in proteins is presented based on scaling the rate of chemical exchange using a 2D (15)N, (1)H(N) experiment in which (15)N dwell times are separated by short spin-echo pulse trains. Unlike the popular Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) experiment where the effects of a radio frequency field on measured(More)
Relaxation dispersion NMR spectroscopy has become a valuable probe of millisecond dynamic processes in biomolecules that exchange between a ground (observable) state and one or more excited (invisible) conformers, in part because chemical shifts of the excited state(s) can be obtained that provide insight into the conformations that are sampled. Here we(More)
Proteins are inherently plastic molecules, whose function often critically depends on excursions between different molecular conformations (conformers). However, a rigorous understanding of the relation between a protein's structure, dynamics and function remains elusive. This is because many of the conformers on its energy landscape are only transiently(More)
A new (15)N constant-time relaxation dispersion pulse scheme for the quantification of millisecond time-scale exchange dynamics in proteins is presented. The experiment differs from previously developed sequences in that it includes (1)H continuous-wave decoupling during the (15)N Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) pulse train that significantly improves the(More)
A simple method is presented for quantifying Ile chi(2) rotamer distributions in proteins based on the measurement of Ile (13)C(delta1) chemical shifts. The methodology is well suited for applications involving very high molecular weight protein complexes, where other NMR parameters such as side-chain scalar coupling constants that report on dihedral angles(More)