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The 10 Be concentrations of river sediments from the Ganges have been measured in order to constrain long-term, spatially averaged erosion rates in a major Himalayan catchment. The data quantify, for the first time, large-scale erosion rates in a major orogenic belt. Erosion rates are highest in the High Himalaya and, overall, the data demonstrate a close(More)
Rivers are the dominant source of many elements and isotopes to the ocean. But this input from the continents is not balanced by the loss of the elements and isotopes through hydrothermal and sedimentary exchange with the oceanic crust, or by temporal changes in the marine inventory for elements that are demonstrably not in steady state. To resolve the(More)
[1] Neodymium isotopic compositions (e Nd) and rare earth element (REE) concentrations were measured for filtered surface to deep waters (112 samples) in the Southern Tropical Pacific. The relatively detailed picture of these tracer distributions allowed us to refine the areas where oceanic e Nd variations occur. e Nd values increase for most of the water(More)
It is widely accepted that modern humans originated in sub-Saharan Africa approximately 150-200 thousand years ago (ka), but their route of dispersal across the currently hyperarid Sahara remains controversial. Given that the first modern humans north of the Sahara are found in the Levant approximately 120-90 ka, northward dispersal likely occurred during a(More)
Chemical weathering of the continents is central to the regulation of atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations, and hence global climate. On million-year timescales silicate weathering leads to the draw-down of carbon dioxide, and on millennial timescales chemical weathering affects the calcium carbonate saturation state of the oceans and hence their(More)
The early diversification of animals (∼ 630 Ma), and their development into both motile and macroscopic forms (∼ 575-565 Ma), has been linked to stepwise increases in the oxygenation of Earth's surface environment. However, establishing such a linkage between oxygen and evolution for the later Cambrian 'explosion' (540-520 Ma) of new, energy-sapping body(More)
The new stable isotope systems of transition metals are increasingly used to understand and quantify the impact of primitive microbial metabolisms on the modern and ancient Earth. To date, little effort has been expended on nickel (Ni) isotopes but there are good reasons to believe that this system may be more straightforward, and useful in this respect,(More)
Geochemical inferences on ancient diet using bone and enamel apatite rely mainly on carbon isotope ratios (δ(13)C) and to a lesser extent on strontium/calcium (Sr/Ca) and barium/calcium (Ba/Ca) elemental ratios. Recent developments in nontraditional stable isotopes provide an unprecedented opportunity to use additional paleodietary proxies to disentangle(More)
[1] The balance of processes that control elemental distributions in the modern oceans is important in understanding both their internal recycling and the rate and nature of their eventual output to sediment. Here we seek to evaluate the likely controls on the vertical profiles of Cu and Zn. Though the concentrations of both Cu and Zn increase with depth,(More)
Zinc is an essential micronutrient and its concentration and isotopic composition in marine sediments represent promising tracers of the ocean carbon cycle. However, gaps remain in our understanding of the modern marine cycle of Zn, including an explanation of the heavy Zn isotopic composition of seawater relative to the known inputs, and the identity of a(More)