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RATIONALE Spatial and novel object recognition learning is different from learning that uses aversive or appetitive stimuli to shape acquisition because no overt contingencies are needed. While this type of learning occurs on a daily basis, little is known about how nicotine administration affects it. OBJECTIVES To determine the effects of acute, chronic,(More)
The effects of nicotine on cognitive processes such as learning and memory may play an important role in the addictive liability of tobacco. However, it remains unknown whether genetic variability modulates the effects of nicotine on learning and memory. The present study characterized the effects of acute, chronic, and withdrawal from chronic nicotine(More)
Activation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) is known to modulate various forms of learning and memory, including contextual fear conditioning. Although numerous studies have shown that high-affinity beta2-containing nAChRs are necessary for the nicotine-induced enhancement of contextual fear conditioning, it is unknown whether other(More)
Despite known health risks, nicotine use remains high, especially in populations diagnosed with mental illnesses, including anxiety disorders and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Smoking in these populations may relate to the effects of nicotine on emotional memories. The current study examined the effects of nicotine administration on the extinction(More)
Smoking is the largest preventable cause of death in the United States. Furthermore, a recent study found that <10% of quit attempts resulted in continuous abstinence for 1 year. With the introduction of pharmacotherapies like Chantix (varenicline), a selective α4β2 nicotinic partial agonist, successful quit attempts have significantly increased. Therefore,(More)
Acute nicotine enhances hippocampus-dependent learning through nicotine binding to β2-containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), but it is unclear if nicotine is targeting processes involved in short-term memory (STM) leading to a strong long-term memory (LTM) or directly targeting LTM. In addition, the molecular mechanisms involved in the(More)
Current smoking cessation aids are relatively ineffective at maintaining abstinence during withdrawal. Nicotine withdrawal is associated with a variety of symptoms including cognitive deficits and targeting these deficits may be a useful strategy for maintaining abstinence. Galantamine is an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor and allosteric modulator of(More)
Pre-adolescence and adolescence are developmental periods associated with increased vulnerability for tobacco addiction, and exposure to tobacco during these periods may lead to long-lasting changes in behavioral and neuronal plasticity. The present study examined the short- and long-term effects of nicotine and nicotine withdrawal on fear conditioning in(More)
Items from the Neighborhood Cohesion Instrument were completed by 1,732 individuals from a random sample of households in 20 rural communities across Canada during the summer of 2001. Confirmatory factor analysis of the NCI items based on polychoric correlations and weighted least squares estimation found three underlying latent variables. Although items(More)
The present study examined RTI-371 [3β-(4-methylphenyl)-2β-[3-(4-chlorophenyl)-isoxazol-5-yl]tropane], a phenyltropane cocaine analog with effects distinct from cocaine, and assessed potential mechanisms for those effects by comparison with its constitutional isomer, RTI-336 [3β-(4-chlorophenyl)-2β-[3-(4-methylphenyl)-isoxazol-5-yl]tropane]. In mice,(More)