Learn More
Axons and their synapses distal to an injury undergo rapid Wallerian degeneration, but axons in the C57BL/WldS mouse are protected. The degenerative and protective mechanisms are unknown. We identified the protective gene, which encodes an N-terminal fragment of ubiquitination factor E4B (Ube4b) fused to nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyltransferase(More)
Axons in Wld(S) mutant mice are protected from Wallerian degeneration by overexpression of a chimeric Ube4b/Nmnat (Wld) gene. Expression of Wld protein was independent of age in these mice. However we identified two distinct neuromuscular synaptic responses to axotomy. In young adult Wld(s) mice, axotomy induced progressive, asynchronous synapse withdrawal(More)
We used live imaging by fiber-optic confocal microendoscopy (CME) of yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) expression in motor neurons to observe and monitor axonal and neuromuscular synaptic phenotypes in mutant mice. First, we visualized slow degeneration of axons and motor nerve terminals at neuromuscular junctions following sciatic nerve injury in Wld(S)(More)
Huntington's disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disorder with complex symptoms dominated by progressive motor dysfunction. Skeletal muscle atrophy is common in HD patients. Because the HD mutation is expressed in skeletal muscle as well as brain, we wondered whether the muscle changes arise from primary pathology. We used R6/2 transgenic mice for our(More)
Axon and synapse degeneration are common components of many neurodegenerative diseases, and their rescue is essential for effective neuroprotection. The chimeric Wallerian degeneration slow protein (Wld(S)) protects axons dose dependently, but its mechanism is still elusive. We recently showed that Wld(S) acts at a non-nuclear location and is present in(More)
Proximal spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a common autosomal recessive childhood form of motor neuron disease. Previous studies have highlighted nerve- and muscle-specific events in SMA, including atrophy of muscle fibres and post-synaptic motor endplates, loss of lower motor neuron cell bodies and denervation of neuromuscular junctions caused by loss of(More)
How the brain's antioxidant defenses adapt to changing demand is incompletely understood. Here we show that synaptic activity is coupled, via the NMDA receptor (NMDAR), to control of the glutathione antioxidant system. This tunes antioxidant capacity to reflect the elevated needs of an active neuron, guards against future increased demand and maintains(More)
Mutations in RAB18 have been shown to cause the heterogeneous autosomal recessive disorder Warburg Micro syndrome (WARBM). Individuals with WARBM present with a range of clinical symptoms, including ocular and neurological abnormalities. However, the underlying cellular and molecular pathogenesis of the disorder remains unclear, largely owing to the lack of(More)
Alpha-latrotoxin (LTX) causes massive release of neurotransmitters via a complex mechanism involving (i) activation of receptor(s) and (ii) toxin insertion into the plasma membrane with (iii) subsequent pore formation. Using cryo-electron microscopy, electrophysiological and biochemical methods, we demonstrate here that the recently described toxin mutant(More)
The slow Wallerian degeneration phenotype, Wld(S), which delays Wallerian degeneration and axon pathology for several weeks, has so far been studied only in mice. A rat model would have several advantages. First, rats model some human disorders better than mice. Second, the larger body size of rats facilitates more complex surgical manipulations. Third,(More)