Derek Middleton

Learn More
The allele frequency net database ( is an online repository that contains information on the frequencies of immune genes and their corresponding alleles in different populations. The extensive variability observed in genes and alleles related to the immune system response and its significance in transplantation, disease(More)
A new website ( has been compiled to execute the frequency of alleles at various polymorphic regions of different populations in the field of histocompatibility and immunogenetics. Data for HLA alleles has been added but this will be extended to include frequency data of polymorphisms in other immunogenetic regions, e.g.(More)
Whole genome comparisons identified introgression from archaic to modern humans. Our analysis of highly polymorphic human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I, vital immune system components subject to strong balancing selection, shows how modern humans acquired the HLA-B*73 allele in west Asia through admixture with archaic humans called Denisovans, a likely(More)
The mtDNA genome has been implicated as playing a pivotal role in determining the longevity and success of the human lifespan. A PCR-RFLP methodology was used to identify polymorphic restriction enzyme sites within a 2643 bp region of the mtDNA genome and a table of genetic haplotypes for a healthy aged and a younger control cohort of patients was(More)
It has been 12 years since the Allele Frequency Net Database (AFND; was first launched, providing the scientific community with an online repository for the storage of immune gene frequencies in different populations across the world. There have been a significant number of improvements from the first version, making AFND a(More)
Natural killer (NK) cells recognize the absence of self MHC class I as a way to discriminate normal cells from cells in distress. In humans, this "missing self" recognition is ensured by inhibitory receptors such as KIR, which dampen NK cell activation upon interaction with their MHC class I ligands. We show here that NK cells lacking inhibitory KIR for(More)
A molecular typing method based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of three different target domains (immunoglobulin domains 1 and 3, and the transmembrane-cytoplasmic domain), followed by hybridisation with 26 digoxigenin-labelled sequence-specific oligonucleotide probes (SSOP) has been established for the polymorphic killer inhibitory(More)
By interacting with polymorphic HLA class I molecules, the killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) influence the innate and adaptive immune response to infection. The KIR family varies in gene content and sequence polymorphism, thereby, distinguishing individuals and populations. To investigate KIR diversity in the earliest settlers of India, we(More)
Alpha-synuclein (alpha-syn) protein and a fragment of it, called NAC, have been found in association with the pathological lesions of a number of neurodegenerative diseases. Recently, mutations in the alpha-syn gene have been reported in families susceptible to an inherited form of Parkinson's disease. We have shown that human wild-type alpha-syn, mutant(More)
BACKGROUND Deposition of beta-amyloid in the brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease is thought to precede a chain of events that leads to an inflammatory response by the brain. We postulated that genetic variation in the regulatory region of the gene for the proinflammatory cytokine tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) leads to increased risk of(More)