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The allele frequency net database (http://www.allelefrequencies.net) is an online repository that contains information on the frequencies of immune genes and their corresponding alleles in different populations. The extensive variability observed in genes and alleles related to the immune system response and its significance in transplantation, disease(More)
An extensive family-based study of linkage disequilibrium (LD) in the killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) cluster was performed. We aimed to describe the LD structure in the KIR gene cluster using a sample of 418 founder haplotypes identified by segregation in a group of 106 families from Northern Ireland. The LD was studied at two levels of(More)
The fine-scale structure of the majority of copy number variation (CNV) regions remains unknown. The killer immunoglobulin receptor (KIR) gene complex exhibits significant CNV. The evolutionary plasticity of the KIRs and their broad biomedical relevance makes it important to understand how these immune receptors evolve. In this paper, we describe haplotype(More)
The release of cytokines is of crucial importance in the regulation of the type and magnitude of the immune response in the elderly. A number of studies have shown different levels of cytokine production in the elderly. In the present study, a range of polymorphisms were chosen within the genes of cytokines (IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12 and IFN-gamma)(More)
Polymorphism of the human leukocyte antigen has been implicated in a number of autoimmune disorders including ageing. In the course of the present study, no association of the human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A1, B8, DR3 haplotype with a male Irish aged population, as previously reported, was observed. Two polymorphic nucleotides in the TNF cluster (G-308A(More)
This report describes the application of reference strand-mediated conformational analysis (RSCA), a novel DNA typing technique, for the identification of clinically significant fungal pathogens. RSCA is a heteroduplex-based conformational method which relies on detecting differences in the DNA conformation of heteroduplexes generated in this study by the(More)
Whole genome comparisons identified introgression from archaic to modern humans. Our analysis of highly polymorphic human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I, vital immune system components subject to strong balancing selection, shows how modern humans acquired the HLA-B*73 allele in west Asia through admixture with archaic humans called Denisovans, a likely(More)
INTRODUCTION The WHO Nomenclature Committee for Factors of the HLA System met in Victoria, Canada in May 2002, after the 13th International Histocompatibility Workshop, to consider additions and revisions to the nomenclature of HLA specificities following the principles established in previous reports [1–16]. The main subjects discussed were: (1) Naming of(More)
INTRODUCTION During discussion at the WHO Nomenclature Committee for Factors of the HLA System meeting in Victoria, Canada, in May 2002, it was decided to form a subcommittee to coordinate the naming of alleles of the genes encoding the killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) [1]. These genes are encoded on chromosome 19 (19q13.4) and have varying(More)
Natural Killer Cells (NK) play an important role in detection and elimination of virus-infected, damaged or cancer cells. NK cell function is guided by expression of Killer Immunoglobulin-like Receptors (KIRs) and contributed to by the cytokine milieu. KIR molecules are grouped on NK cells into stimulatory and inhibitory KIR haplotypes A and B, through(More)