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With their power to shape animal morphology, few genes have captured the imagination of biologists as the evolutionarily conserved members of the Hox clusters have done. Recent research has provided new insight into how Hox proteins cause morphological diversity at the organismal and evolutionary levels. Furthermore, an expanding collection of sequences(More)
Choanoflagellates are the closest known relatives of metazoans. To discover potential molecular mechanisms underlying the evolution of metazoan multicellularity, we sequenced and analysed the genome of the unicellular choanoflagellate Monosiga brevicollis. The genome contains approximately 9,200 intron-rich genes, including a number that encode cell(More)
We present a fluorescence-based, multiplex in situ hybridization method that permits the simultaneous detection of five differently labeled antisense RNA probes and up to seven differ-ent transcripts in a single Drosophila embryo. We also show that it should be possible to increase the number of detected transcripts substantially with nascent transcript(More)
The discovery of microRNAs has resulted in a major expansion of the number of molecules known to be involved in gene regulation. Elucidating the functions of animal microRNAs has posed a significant challenge as their target interactions with messenger RNAs do not adhere to simple rules. Of the thousands of known animal microRNAs, relatively few(More)
The detection and counting of transcripts within single cells via fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) has allowed researchers to ask quantitative questions about gene expression at the level of individual cells. This method is often preferable to quantitative RT-PCR, because it does not necessitate destruction of the cells being probed and maintains(More)
The enormous diversity of extant animal forms is a testament to the power of evolution, and much of this diversity has been achieved through the emergence of novel morphological traits. The origin of novel morphological traits is an extremely important issue in biology, and a frequent source of this novelty is co-option of pre-existing genetic systems for(More)
Originally discovered as regulators of developmental timing in C. elegans, microRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as modulators of nearly every cellular process, from normal development to pathogenesis. With the advent of whole genome libraries of miRNA mimics suitable for high throughput screening, it is possible to comprehensively evaluate the function of each(More)
MUNC18B-deficiency on lysosome secretion are much more modest than those on ␣ or dense granule release, 1,2 implying distinct controls for secretion from lysosomes relative to dense and ␣ granules. Either of 2 models might explain this phenomenon: either the effects on lysosomal secretion are indirect (eg, a consequence of reduced signaling because of the(More)
or other light-dependent behaviors. But, if vertebrates are an example, these two photodetection systems functioned together, rather than remaining separate. Although the remaining five families of opsins have not been fully characterized, it seems probable that they also respond to light, and organisms use the information they provide. Genomics and Eye(More)
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