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Adult differentiated cells can be reprogrammed into pluripotent stem cells or lineage-restricted proliferating precursors in culture; however, this has not been demonstrated in vivo. Here, we show that the single transcription factor SOX2 is sufficient to reprogram resident astrocytes into proliferative neuroblasts in the adult mouse brain. These induced(More)
Self-splicing group II introns may be the evolutionary progenitors of eukaryotic spliceosomal introns, but the route by which they invade new chromosomal sites is unknown. To address the mechanism by which group II introns are disseminated, we have studied the bacterial L1.LtrB intron from Lactococcus lactis. The protein product of this intron, LtrA,(More)
Neural stem cells (NSCs) are self-renewing multipotent progenitors that generate both neurons and glia. The precise control of NSC behavior is fundamental to the architecture and function of the central nervous system. We previously demonstrated that the orphan nuclear receptor TLX is required for postnatal NSC activation and neurogenesis in the neurogenic(More)
I-TevI, the intron-encoded endonuclease from the thymidylate synthase (td) gene of bacteriophage T4, binds its DNA substrate across the minor groove in a sequence-tolerant fashion. We demonstrate here that the 28 kDa I-TevI binds the extensive 37 bp td homing site as a monomer and significantly distorts its substrate. In situ cleavage assays and phasing(More)
Group II intron homing occurs primarily by a mechanism in which the intron RNA reverse splices into a DNA target site and is then reverse transcribed by the intron-encoded protein. The DNA target site is recognized by an RNP complex containing the intron-encoded protein and the excised intron RNA. Here, we analyzed DNA target-site requirements for the(More)
Intron homing in phage T4 occurs in the context of recombination-dependent replication, by virtue of intron-encoded endonucleolytic activity. After the td intron endonuclease I-TevI cleaves the intronless recipient 23 and 25 nucleotides upstream of the intron insertion site, exonucleolytic degradation is required for recombination to proceed. This resection(More)
The modification of cell surface proteins by plasma membrane and soluble proteases is important for physiological and pathological processes. Methods to identify shed and soluble substrates are crucial to further define the substrate repertoire, termed the substrate degradome, of individual proteases. Identifying protease substrates is essential to(More)
A patient with pre-eclampsia at 31.7 weeks' gestation developed focal neurologic signs. Computerized tomography revealed a large cranial subdural hematoma. A subdural hematoma should be considered in any pre-eclamptic patient demonstrating lateralizing neurologic symptoms. Despite adequate treatment, an atraumatic subdural hematoma associated with(More)
We have characterized features of the site recognized by a double-stranded DNA endonuclease, I-SceII, encoded by intron 4 alpha of the yeast mitochondrial COX1 gene. We determined the effects of 36 point mutations on the cleavage efficiency of natural and synthetic substrates containing the Saccharomyces capensis I-SceII site. Most mutations of the 18-bp(More)
The discovery and in vivo application of cell fate reprogramming concepts have jumpstarted new technologies aimed at the functional regeneration of damaged tissues. As most adult organ systems retain only a limited potential for self-regeneration after trauma, the production of fate-specific cells by in vivo transdifferentiation offers a targeted method for(More)