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Abstract Accumulating pre-clinical data suggests that matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression plays a critical role in the pathophysiology of secondary brain injury. We conducted a prospective multimodal monitoring study in order to characterize the temporal MMP response after severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) in eight critically ill humans and its(More)
Octreotide reduces perception of rectal distension in normal volunteers and irritable bowel patients. To localize octreotide's site of action, perceptual and evoked potential responses to rectal electrical stimulation were tested in seven normal volunteers after double-blind octreotide (100 micrograms 2) or placebo. After octreotide, the currents needed to(More)
An increasing number of preclinical investigations have suggested that the degree of expression of the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) family of endopeptidases may explain some of the variability in neurological damage after traumatic brain injury (TBI). As cytokines are a prominent stimulus for MMP expression in animals, we conducted a prospective(More)
INTRODUCTION Although intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) are associated with substantial morbidity and mortality among critically ill adults, it remains unknown if prevention or treatment of these conditions improves patient outcomes. We sought to identify evidence-based risk factors for IAH and ACS in order to guide(More)
Somatostatin (SS) has both excitatory and inhibitory actions on myenteric cholinergic transmission, which are mimicked by gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). We hypothesized that both effects of SS are mediated by neural GABA pathways. In guinea pig ileal longitudinal muscle-myenteric plexus, SS evoked [3H]-GABA release verifying GABA neural activation. SS(More)
BACKGROUND Although health care providers utilize classically described signs and symptoms to diagnose tension pneumothorax, available literature sources differ in their descriptions of its clinical manifestations. Moreover, while the clinical manifestations of tension pneumothorax have been suggested to differ among subjects of varying respiratory status,(More)
INTRODUCTION Hyper- and hypoglycemia are strongly associated with adverse outcomes in critical care. Neurologically injured patients are a unique subgroup, where optimal glycemic targets may differ, such that the findings of clinical trials involving heterogeneous critically ill patients may not apply. METHODS We performed a systematic review and(More)
BACKGROUND A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was conducted to update the available evidence on the safety and efficacy of carotid endarterectomy (CEA) versus carotid artery stenting (CAS) in the treatment of carotid artery stenosis. METHODS A comprehensive search was performed of MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL, bibliographies of included(More)
Existing user-level network interfaces deliver high bandwidth, low latency performance to applications, but are typically unable to support diverse styles of communication and are unsuitable for use in multipro-grammed environments. Often this is because the network abstraction is presented at too high a level, and support for synchronisation is inflexible.(More)