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[1] In this paper, we examine the tropical environment at radiative convective equilibrium using a large-domain cloud system resolving numerical model. As in observed studies of convectively active periods over warm tropical oceans (in particular the tropical western Pacific), we find a trimodal cloud structure that is closely associated with the presence(More)
An extratropical cyclone that crossed the United States on 9–11 April 2009 was successfully simulated at high resolution (3-km horizontal grid spacing) using the Colorado State University Regional Atmospheric Modeling System. The sensitivity of the associated warm front to increasing pollution levels was then explored by conducting the same experiment with(More)
In 2011, Lake Erie experienced the largest harmful algal bloom in its recorded history, with a peak intensity over three times greater than any previously observed bloom. Here we show that long-term trends in agricultural practices are consistent with increasing phosphorus loading to the western basin of the lake, and that these trends, coupled with(More)
and brief excerpts from this work in scientific and educational works is hereby granted provided that the source is acknowledged. Any use of material in this work that is determined to be " fair use " under Section 107 of the U.S. does not require the AMS's permission. Republication, systematic reproduction, posting in electronic form, such as on a web site(More)
and brief excerpts from this work in scientific and educational works is hereby granted provided that the source is acknowledged. Any use of material in this work that is determined to be " fair use " under Section 107 of the U.S. Copyright Act or that satisfies the conditions specified in Section 108 of the U.S. Copyright Act (17 USC §108, as revised by(More)
The effect of latent heat release on the development of the occluded thermal structure in a major winter storm is examined through comparison of full physics (FP) and no-latent-heat-release (NLHR) simulations of the event performed using the fifth-generation Pennsylvania State University–NCAR Mesoscale Model (MM5). Though both simulations possess a(More)
and brief excerpts from this work in scientific and educational works is hereby granted provided that the source is acknowledged. Any use of material in this work that is determined to be " fair use " under Section 107 of the U.S. Copyright Act or that satisfies the conditions specified in Section 108 of the U.S. Copyright Act (17 USC §108, as revised by(More)
Extratropical cyclones are responsible for most of the precipitation and wind damage in the midlatitudes during the cold season, but there are still uncertainties on how they will change in a warming climate. A ubiquitous problem among general circulation models (GCMs) is a lack of cloudiness over the southern oceans that may be in part caused by a lack of(More)