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The global epidemic of multidrug-resistant Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 provides an important example, both in terms of the agent and its resistance, of a widely disseminated zoonotic pathogen. Here, with an unprecedented national collection of isolates collected contemporaneously from humans and animals and including a sample of internationally derived(More)
Salmonella enterica serovar Agona has caused multiple food-borne outbreaks of gastroenteritis since it was first isolated in 1952. We analyzed the genomes of 73 isolates from global sources, comparing five distinct outbreaks with sporadic infections as well as food contamination and the environment. Agona consists of three lineages with minimal mutational(More)
A description is provided of Longidorus cholevae sp. n., a bisexual species associated with wild cherry (Prunus avium L.) from the Rila Mountains, Bulgaria. The position of L. cholevae sp. n. among other species of the genus was elucidated by using morphological and molecular data. Phylogenetic analyses were performed of D2-D3 expansion domains of the 28S(More)
Epidemic C. difficile (027/BI/NAP1) has rapidly emerged in the past decade as the leading cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea worldwide. However, the key events in evolutionary history leading to its emergence and the subsequent patterns of global spread remain unknown. Here, we define the global population structure of C. difficile 027/BI/NAP1 using(More)
Shigella are human-adapted Escherichia coli that have gained the ability to invade the human gut mucosa and cause dysentery(1,2), spreading efficiently via low-dose fecal-oral transmission(3,4). Historically, S. sonnei has been predominantly responsible for dysentery in developed countries but is now emerging as a problem in the developing world, seeming to(More)
The relationship between the magnitude of systemic inflammatory response and the nutritional/functional parameters in patients with inoperable non-small cell lung cancer were studied. The extent of weight loss, albumin, C-reactive protein, performance status and quality of life was measured in 106 patients with inoperable non-small cell lung cancer (stages(More)
The relationship between circulating C-reactive protein concentrations and potential cytokine and receptor mediators (interleukin-6, leukaemia inhibitory factor (LIF), ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), soluble IL-6 receptor, soluble gp130, soluble TNF receptor, interleukin-1 receptor antagonist and interleukin-8 (IL-8)) of this acute phase protein were(More)
An acetylcholine deficit remains the most consistent neurotransmitter abnormality found in Alzheimer's disease and various therapeutic agents have been targeted at this. In this study we investigated the action of Donepezil, a cholinesterase inhibitor that has few side-effects. In particular we set out to investigate whether muscarinic acetylcholine(More)
The phylogenetic interpretation of the nematode cuticle ultrastructure is reviewed within the framework of recent DNA-sequence data. In particular, the structure of the median and basal zones is discussed. Several structural elements of the cuticle seem to have arisen independently several times within the Nematoda and thus are highly homoplasious (e.g. the(More)
To the Editor: Since 2000, Salmonella enterica serovar Paratyphi B variant Java (S. Java) with resistance to antimicrobial drugs has been isolated with increasing frequency These isolates made up 35% of 325 strains of S. Java in human infections over the study period (L.R. Ward, unpub. data). A range of drug-resistant spectrums (R-types) have been observed,(More)