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Cell adhesion and communication are interdependent aspects of cell behavior that are critical for morphogenesis and tissue architecture. In the skin, epidermal adhesion is mediated in part by specialized cell-cell junctions known as desmosomes, which are characterized by the presence of desmosomal cadherins, known as desmogleins and desmocollins. We(More)
The purpose of this work is to quantify the effects that errors in genotyping have on power and the sample size necessary to maintain constant asymptotic Type I and Type II error rates (SSN) for case-control genetic association studies between a disease phenotype and a di-allelic marker locus, for example a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) locus. We(More)
The present study assesses the effects of genotyping errors on the type I error rate of a particular transmission/disequilibrium test (TDT(std)), which assumes that data are errorless, and introduces a new transmission/disequilibrium test (TDT(ae)) that allows for random genotyping errors. We evaluate the type I error rate and power of the TDT(ae) under a(More)
Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) may be used in case-control designs to test for association between a SNP marker and a disease. Such designs may assume that the genotype data are reported without error. Our goal is quantifying the effects that errors have on sample size for case-control studies with haplotypes formed by a disease locus and a SNP(More)
Two issues regarding the robustness of the original transmission disequilibrium test (TDT) developed by Spielman et al are: (i) missing parental genotype data and (ii) the presence of undetected genotype errors. While extensions of the TDT that are robust to items (i) and (ii) have been developed, there is to date no single TDT statistic that is robust to(More)
Although researchers use duplicate genotyped data to calculate an inconsistency rate, there is no power analysis to assess the value of the duplicate data. In this paper, we present a model in which the genotyping error rate is related to the inconsistency rate. We extend the g genotype by h phenotype chi-squared test to incorporate the duplicate genotyped(More)
BACKGROUND Two factors impacting robustness of the original transmission disequilibrium test (TDT) are: i) missing parental genotypes and ii) undetected genotype errors. While it is known that independently these factors can inflate false-positive rates for the original TDT, no study has considered either the joint impact of these factors on false-positive(More)
We previously demonstrated that telomere length was markedly reduced in peripheral blood lymphocytes from individuals with schizophrenia. Since reduced telomere length can be caused by decreased telomerase activity, we quantitated basal telomerase activity in peripheral blood lymphocytes derived from individuals with schizophrenia (n=53), unaffected(More)
Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is an unexplained and common spinal deformity seen in otherwise healthy children. Its pathophysiology is poorly understood despite intensive investigation. Although genetic underpinnings are clear, replicated susceptibility loci that could provide insight into etiology have not been forthcoming. To address these issues,(More)