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Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) regulates serum LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) by interacting with the LDL receptor (LDLR) and is an attractive therapeutic target for LDL-C lowering. We have generated a neutralizing anti-PCSK9 antibody, mAb1, that binds to an epitope on PCSK9 adjacent to the region required for LDLR interaction. In vitro,(More)
Hox homeodomain proteins are developmental regulators that determine body plan in a variety of organisms. A majority of the vertebrate Hox proteins bind DNA as heterodimers with the Pbx1 homeodomain protein. We report here the 2.35 A structure of a ternary complex containing a human HoxB1-Pbx1 heterodimer bound to DNA. Heterodimer contacts are mediated by(More)
Proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin type 9 (PCSK9) has been shown to be involved in the regulation of extracellular levels of the low-density lipoprotien receptor (LDLR). Although PCSK9 is a subtilase, it has not been shown to degrade the LDLR, and its LDLR-lowering mechanism remains uncertain. Here we report the crystal structure of human PCSK9 at 2.3 A(More)
The LDL receptor (LDLr) inhibitor Proprotein Convertase Subtilisin Kexin type 9 (PCSK9) has emerged as a genetically validated target for lowering plasma LDL cholesterol levels. In 2007, PCSK9 was found to act as a chaperone that binds the LDLr, thereby targeting it for lysosomal degradation. The enzymatic activity of PCSK9 is not involved in that process,(More)
GA-binding protein (GABP) is a transcriptional regulator composed of two structurally dissimilar subunits. The alpha subunit contains a DNA-binding domain that is a member of the ETS family, whereas the beta subunit contains a series of ankyrin repeats. The crystal structure of a ternary complex containing a GABPalpha/beta ETS domain-ankyrin repeat(More)
Recombinant retroviruses were produced by transient transfection of human embryonal kidney 293T cells: 2 ϫ 10 6 cells were plated 24 hours before transfection in 60-mm dishes. Transfection was performed by calcium-phosphate precipitation with 3 ␮g of a retroviral vector (14) encoding luciferase linked to an internal ribosome entry site and a green(More)
Hepsin is a membrane-anchored, trypsin-like serine protease with prominent expression in the human liver and tumours of the prostate and ovaries. To better understand the biological functions of hepsin, we identified macromolecular substrates employing a tetrapeptide PS-SCL (positional scanning-synthetic combinatorial library) screen that rapidly determines(More)
The present report describes our efforts to convert an existing LXR agonist into an LXR antagonist using a structure-based approach. A series of benzenesulfonamides was synthesized based on structural modification of a known LXR agonist and was determined to be potent dual liver X receptor (LXR α/β) ligands. Herein we report the identification of compound(More)
Novel non-nucleoside inhibitors of the HCV RNA polymerase (NS5b) with sub-micromolar biochemical potency have been identified which are selective for the inhibition of HCV NS5b over other polymerases. The structures of the complexes formed between several of these inhibitors and HCV NS5b were determined by X-ray crystallography, and the inhibitors were(More)
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma worldwide-and is the main cause of adult liver transplants in developed nations. We have identified a class of novel and specific inhibitors of HCV NS5B RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) activity in vitro. Characterization of two such inhibitors,(More)