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E1 enzymes activate ubiquitin (Ub) and ubiquitin-like (Ubl) proteins in two steps by carboxy-terminal adenylation and thioester bond formation to a conserved catalytic cysteine in the E1 Cys domain. The structural basis for these intermediates remains unknown. Here we report crystal structures for human SUMO E1 in complex with SUMO adenylate and tetrahedral(More)
Macrocycles are key structural elements in numerous bioactive small molecules and are attractive targets in the diversity-oriented synthesis of natural product-based libraries. However, efficient and systematic access to diverse collections of macrocycles has proven difficult using classical macrocyclization reactions. To address this problem, we have(More)
Interactive media not only should enhance human-to-human communication, but also human-to-animal communication. We promote a new type of media interaction allowing human users to interact and play with their small pets (like hamsters) remotely via Internet through a mixed-reality-based game system " Metazoa Ludens ". To examine the systems effectiveness:(More)
Nature has exploited medium-sized 8- to 11-membered rings in a variety of natural products to address diverse and challenging biological targets. However, owing to the limitations of conventional cyclization-based approaches to medium-ring synthesis, these structures remain severely underrepresented in current probe and drug discovery efforts. To address(More)
(-)-Shikimic acid, 3, was converted into both enantiomers of epoxycyclohexenol carboxylic acid, 7, which were attached to a solid support via a photocleavable linker. Tandem acylation-1,3-dipolar cycloaddition with nitrones 11a-g yielded tetracyclic templates 12a-g. After development of several efficient coupling reactions of iodobenzyl tetracycles 12b-d(More)
The chemical features that impact small-molecule permeability across bacterial membranes are poorly understood, and the resulting lack of tools to predict permeability presents a major obstacle to the discovery and development of novel antibiotics. Antibacterials are known to have vastly different structural and physicochemical properties compared to(More)
A stereocontrolled synthesis of benzannulated spiroketals has been developed using solvent-dependent Sc(OTf)3-mediated spirocyclizations of exo-glycal epoxides having alcohol side chains. In THF, the reaction proceeds via Lewis acid catalysis under kinetic control with inversion of configuration at the anomeric carbon. In contrast, in CH2Cl2, Brønsted acid(More)
A. Supplementary Figures S1–S2 S2 B. Complete data on spirocyclization of exo-glycal epoxide 6a S3 C. Materials and methods S4 D. Synthesis of propargyl alcohols 2a–h S5 E. Synthesis of exo-glycals 3a–h S8 F. Synthesis of TIPS-protected exo-glycals 4a–h S11 G. Synthesis of 4-substituted exo-glycals 4i–n S14 H. Synthesis of exo-glycal alcohols 5a–n S18 I.(More)
Adjuvants are materials added to vaccines to enhance the immunological response to an antigen. QS-21 is a natural product adjuvant under investigation in numerous vaccine clinical trials, but its use is constrained by scarcity, toxicity, instability and an enigmatic molecular mechanism of action. Herein we describe the development of a minimal QS-21(More)
Vaccines based on molecular subunit antigens are increasingly being investigated due to their improved safety and more precise targeting compared to classical whole-pathogen vaccines. However, subunit vaccines are inherently less immunogenic; thus, coadministration of an adjuvant to increase the immunogenicity of the antigen is often necessary to elicit a(More)