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Clinicians and researchers without a suitable health-related quality of life (HRQOL) measure in their own language have two choices: (1) to develop a new measure, or (2) to modify a measure previously validated in another language, known as a cross-cultural adaptation process. We propose a set of standardized guidelines for this process based on previous(More)
Despite the publication in the mid-1990s of comprehensive practice guidelines for the management of acute low-back pain, both in the United States and elsewhere, this ubiquitous health problem continues to be the main cause of workers' compensation claims in much of the Western world. This paper represents a synthesis of the intervention studies published(More)
gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) immunoreactivity is demonstrated by the indirect immunofluorescence technique in a small population of retinal neurons cultured from human fetuses. Positive staining was restricted to a few cells and could be observed as soon as the cells became attached to the substrate (within 5 hr). It is therefore concluded that the(More)
We present an extension of PLS—called partial least squares correspondence analysis (PLSCA)—tailored for the analysis of nominal data. As the name indicates, PLSCA combines features of PLS (analyzing the information common to two tables) and correspondence analysis (CA, analyzing nominal data). We also present inferential techniques for PLSCA such as(More)
The localisation of GABA immunoreactive neurones in retinas of a variety of animals was examined. Immunoreactivity was associated with specific populations of amacrine neurones in all species examined, viz. rat, rabbit, goldfish, frog, pigeon and guinea-pig. All species, with the exception of the frog, possessed immunoreactive perikarya in their retinal(More)
The distribution of substance P-like immunoreactivity within the squid retina and brain was studied by immunofluorescence. Positive immunoreactivity was observed as a single layer of fibres in the retina. The retina was devoid of tyrosine-hydroxylase, serotonin, gamma-aminobutyric acid, cholecystokinin, neuropeptide Y, somatostatin, enkephalin and(More)
The same cells in both the intact retina and retinal cultures of the rabbit retina take up exogenous serotonin or 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine. Both substances can be localised by immunohistochemistry using a monoclonal antibody directed against serotonin. The 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine can also be revealed directly in both fixed and living tissues using(More)
A converging body of clinical and empirical reports indicates that autism features elevated rates of paranoia comparable to those of individuals with paranoid schizophrenia. However, the distinct developmental courses and symptom manifestations of these two disorders suggest that the nature of paranoid ideation may differ between them in important and(More)
We explore the relationships between the cortex functional organization and genetic expression (as provided by the Allen Human Brain Atlas). Previous work suggests that functional cortical networks (resting state and task based) are organized as two large networks (differentiated by their preferred information processing mode) shaped like two rings. The(More)