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Lipoxygenases (LOX) and cyclooxygenases (COX) react an achiral polyunsaturated fatty acid with oxygen to form a chiral peroxide product of high regio- and stereochemical purity. Both enzymes employ free radical chemistry reminiscent of hydrocarbon autoxidation but execute efficient control during catalysis to form a specific product over the multitude of(More)
The gas-phase O-H bond dissociation enthalpy, BDE, in phenol provides an essential benchmark for calibrating the O-H BDEs of other phenols, data which aids our understanding of the reactivities of phenols, such as their relevant antioxidant activities. In a recent review, the O-H BDE for phenol was presented as 90 +/- 3 kcal mol(-1) (Acc. Chem. Res. 2003,(More)
The efficacy of the diphenol curcumin as a cancer chemopreventive agent is limited by its chemical and metabolic instability. Non-enzymatic degradation has been described to yield vanillin, ferulic acid, and feruloylmethane through cleavage of the heptadienone chain connecting the phenolic rings. Here we provide evidence for an alternative mechanism,(More)
Cysteinyl leukotrienes (CysLTs) are potent inflammatory mediators that predominantly exert their effects by binding to cysteinyl leukotriene receptors of the G protein-coupled receptor family. CysLT receptor 2 (CysLT(2)R), expressed in endothelial cells of some vascular beds, has been implicated in a variety of cardiovascular functions. Endothelium-specific(More)
Herein we report an investigation of the efficacy of pyridine and pyrimidine analogs of acetaminophen (ApAP) as peroxyl radical-trapping antioxidants and inhibitors of enzyme-catalyzed lipid peroxidation by cyclooxygenases (COX) and lipoxygenases (LOX). In inhibited autoxidations we find that ApAP, the common analgesic and antipyretic agent, is a very good(More)
Remote intramolecular hydrogen bonds (HBs) in phenols and benzylammonium cations influence the dissociation enthalpies of their O-H and C-N bonds, respectively. The direction of these intramolecular HBs, para --> meta or meta --> para, determines the sign of the variation with respect to molecules lacking remote intramolecular HBs. For example, the O-H bond(More)
3-(2'-Deoxy-beta-D-erythro-pentofuranosyl)pyrimido[1,2-alpha]purin-10(3H)-one (M1dG) is the major product of the reaction of deoxyguanosine with malondialdehyde (MDA). M1dG blocks replication by DNA polymerases in vitro and is mutagenic in vivo. M1dG reacts with hydroxide to form the N2-(3-oxo-1-propenyl)deoxyguanosine anion (N2OPdG-). This reaction is(More)
Adenovirus (Ad) vectors for gene therapy are made replication defective by deletion of E1 region genes. For isolation, propagation, and large-scale production of such vectors, E1 functions are supplied in trans from a stable cell line. Virtually all Ad vectors used for clinical studies are produced in the 293 cell, a human embryonic kidney cell line(More)
The peroxidation of lipids in biological membranes has been implicated in both the onset and development of most degenerative diseases. The primary products of this autoxidation process are usually lipid hydroperoxides. They form as a consequence of a free radical chain reaction: lipid peroxyl radicals propagate the chain by rate-limiting H-atom abstraction(More)
Hydroquinones (benzene-1,4-diols) are naturally occurring chain-breaking antioxidants, whose reactions with peroxyl radicals yield 1,4-semiquinone radicals. Unlike the 1,2-semiquinone radicals derived from catechols (benzene-1,2-diols), the 1,4-semiquinone radicals do not always trap another peroxyl radical, and instead the stoichiometric factor of(More)