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Experiments in rodents have indicated that maternal valproic acid (VPA) exposure has permanent adverse effects upon neurological and behavioral development. In humans, prenatal exposure to VPA can induce fetal valproate syndrome, which has been associated with autism. The present study examined mouse pups exposed in utero to VPA, measuring physical(More)
In rodents, a single administration of valproic acid (VPA) in utero leads to developmental delays and lifelong deficits in motor performance, social behavior, and anxiety-like behavior in the offspring. Recently, we have demonstrated that VPA mice show alterations in postnatal growth and development, and deficits in olfactory discrimination and social(More)
Evidence scattered over the literatures of zoology, psychology, agricultural science, and medicine indicates that diverse stressors will interfere with pregnancy in its early stages. It is probable that the most sensitive period is around the point of intrauterine implantation of fertilized ova. Although there is some indication that conventional "stress"(More)
Physical restraint, like many other stressors, can block early pregnancy, but the underlying physiological mechanisms have not been established. Exogenous estrogens in minute doses will also block early pregnancy. In the present study, female rats were exposed to 5 h of restraint daily for the first 5 days after insemination. A subset of animals was(More)
Novel males can disrupt early pregnancy in female house mice (Mus musculus). In Experiment 1, exposure to novel males disrupted pregnancy, but exposure to male urine did not. In Experiment 2, urine from male or female mice or rats painted on females' noses did not influence pregnancy. In Experiment 3, the conjunction of urine painted on female's noses and(More)
Previous experimentation has established that adrenalectomy can facilitate lordosis in ovariectomized estrogen-primed female rats. Experiment 1 examined the role of adrenal steroids in this effect, the results indicating an attenuation with chronic corticosterone but not with desoxycorticosterone or progesterone administration. Experiment 2 established a(More)
Experiment 1 replicated the Bruce effect, showing pregnancy termination in CF1 strain female mice (Mus musculus) housed underneath novel heterogeneous strain (HS) males. In a 4-arm maze in Experiment 2, inseminated CF1 females approached novel HS males more often than CF1 sires or unfamiliar CF1 males. In Experiment 3, inseminated females showed random(More)
This article is part of a Special Issue (Chemosignals and Reproduction). Whether from endogenous or exogenous sources, 17β-estradiol (E2) has very powerful influences over mammalian female reproductive physiology and behavior. Given its highly lipophilic nature and low molecular mass, E2 readily enters excretions and can be absorbed from exogenous sources(More)
Mature male mice of proven fertility were administered chronic oral doses of anastrozole, a potent aromatase inhibitor, and also given a low-phytoestrogen diet. Urine was taken non-invasively from such males and from untreated control males and assayed for 17beta-estradiol and testosterone via ELISA procedures. After 8 weeks of drug or vehicle(More)
Severe chronic stress can have a profoundly negative impact on the brain, affecting plasticity, neurogenesis, memory and mood. On the other hand, there are factors that upregulate neurogenesis, which include dietary antioxidants and physical activity. These factors are associated with biochemical processes that are also altered in age-related cognitive(More)