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Experiments in rodents have indicated that maternal valproic acid (VPA) exposure has permanent adverse effects upon neurological and behavioral development. In humans, prenatal exposure to VPA can induce fetal valproate syndrome, which has been associated with autism. The present study examined mouse pups exposed in utero to VPA, measuring physical(More)
In rodents, a single administration of valproic acid (VPA) in utero leads to developmental delays and lifelong deficits in motor performance, social behavior, and anxiety-like behavior in the offspring. Recently, we have demonstrated that VPA mice show alterations in postnatal growth and development, and deficits in olfactory discrimination and social(More)
A forced arm exercise was investigated as a means of eliminating head-hitting in two children. During sessions restraints used to manage subjects were removed. After a baseline measure, required practice of repeated vertical arm movements was made contingent upon each response. Later, this procedure was combined with reinforcement under a differential(More)
Evidence scattered over the literatures of zoology, psychology, agricultural science, and medicine indicates that diverse stressors will interfere with pregnancy in its early stages. It is probable that the most sensitive period is around the point of intrauterine implantation of fertilized ova. Although there is some indication that conventional "stress"(More)
Physical restraint, like many other stressors, can block early pregnancy, but the underlying physiological mechanisms have not been established. Exogenous estrogens in minute doses will also block early pregnancy. In the present study, female rats were exposed to 5 h of restraint daily for the first 5 days after insemination. A subset of animals was(More)
Novel males can disrupt early pregnancy in female house mice (Mus musculus). In Experiment 1, exposure to novel males disrupted pregnancy, but exposure to male urine did not. In Experiment 2, urine from male or female mice or rats painted on females' noses did not influence pregnancy. In Experiment 3, the conjunction of urine painted on female's noses and(More)
Previous experimentation has established that adrenalectomy can facilitate lordosis in ovariectomized estrogen-primed female rats. Experiment 1 examined the role of adrenal steroids in this effect, the results indicating an attenuation with chronic corticosterone but not with desoxycorticosterone or progesterone administration. Experiment 2 established a(More)
Experiment 1 replicated the Bruce effect, showing pregnancy termination in CF1 strain female mice (Mus musculus) housed underneath novel heterogeneous strain (HS) males. In a 4-arm maze in Experiment 2, inseminated CF1 females approached novel HS males more often than CF1 sires or unfamiliar CF1 males. In Experiment 3, inseminated females showed random(More)
In normal mating, house mice vary dramatically in the number and duration of intromissions that precede ejaculation. Also, some proportion of inseminations typically fails to yield litters. The present studies involved systematic observations of matings of females in natural estrus with males of proven fertility. After standardized observation of mating(More)
Pain responsiveness was investigated experimentally as a function of age and childbirth pain experience. Sensitivity to cold pressor-induced pain was assessed through threshold, tolerance, and visual analog pain ratings. It was hypothesized that childbirth pain experience would mostly modify experimental pain judgment, in accordance with the(More)