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The concept of "ligand bias" at G protein coupled receptors has been introduced to describe ligands which preferentially stimulate one intracellular signaling pathway over another. There is growing interest in developing biased G protein coupled receptor ligands to yield safer, better tolerated, and more efficacious drugs. The classical μ opioid morphine(More)
Cathepsin K is an osteoclast-derived cysteine protease that has been implicated as playing a major role in bone resorption. A substantial body of evidence indicates that cathepsin K is critical in osteoclast-mediated bone resorption and suggests that its pharmacological inhibition should result in inhibition of bone resorption in vivo. Here we report the(More)
Biased G protein-coupled receptor ligands engage subsets of the receptor signals normally stimulated by unbiased agonists. However, it is unclear whether ligand bias can elicit differentiated pharmacology in vivo. Here, we describe the discovery of a potent, selective β-arrestin biased ligand of the angiotensin II type 1 receptor. TRV120027(More)
Overexpression of AKT has an antiapoptotic effect in many cell types, and expression of dominant negative AKT blocks the ability of a variety of growth factors to promote survival. Therefore, inhibitors of AKT kinase activity might be useful as monotherapy for the treatment of tumors with activated AKT. Herein, we describe our lead optimization studies(More)
The concept of ligand bias at G protein-coupled receptors broadens the possibilities for agonist activities and provides the opportunity to develop safer, more selective therapeutics. Morphine pharmacology in b-arrestin-2 knockout mice suggested that a ligand that promotes coupling of the m-opioid receptor (MOR) to G proteins, but not b-arrestins, would(More)
The concept of ligand bias at G protein-coupled receptors broadens the possibilities for agonist activities and provides the opportunity to develop safer, more selective therapeutics. Morphine pharmacology in β-arrestin-2 knockout mice suggested that a ligand that promotes coupling of the μ-opioid receptor (MOR) to G proteins, but not β-arrestins, would(More)
Papain has been used as a surrogate enzyme in a drug design effort to obtain potent and selective inhibitors of cathepsin K, a new member of the papain superfamily of cysteine proteases that is selectively and highly expressed in osteoclasts and is implicated in bone resorption. Here we report the crystal structures of two papain-inhibitor complexes and the(More)
The syntheses, in vitro characterizations, and rat and monkey in vivo pharmacokinetic profiles of a series of 5-, 6-, and 7-methyl-substituted azepanone-based cathepsin K inhibitors are described. Depending on the particular regiochemical substitution and stereochemical configuration, methyl-substituted azepanones were identified that had widely varied(More)
A pyrrolopyridinyl thiophene carboxamide 7 was discovered as a tractable starting point for a lead optimization effort in an AKT kinase inhibition program. SAR studies aided by a co-crystal structure of 7 in AKT2 led to the identification of AKT inhibitors with subnanomolar potency. Representative compounds showed antiproliferative activity as well as(More)
The synthesis, in vitro activities, and pharmacokinetics of a series of azepanone-based inhibitors of the cysteine protease cathepsin K (EC 3.4.22.38) are described. These compounds show improved configurational stability of the C-4 diastereomeric center relative to the previously published five- and six-membered ring ketone-based inhibitor series. Studies(More)