Dennis R. Hoffman

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The influence of dietary omega-3 fatty acid supply on visual acuity development was evaluated in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants using visual-evoked potential (VEP) and forced-choice preferential-looking (FPL) procedures at 36 and 57 wk postconception. The VLBW infants born at 27-33 wk postconception were randomized to one of three diet groups: corn(More)
The question of whether a dietary supply of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) imparts advantages to visual or cognitive development in term infants has been debated for many years. DHA and ARA are present in human milk, and nursing infants consume these fatty acids needed for rapid synthesis of cell membranes, particularly neural cells.(More)
BACKGROUND While there is a large body of data on the effects of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation of infant formula on visual and cognitive maturation during infancy, longterm visual and cognitive outcome data from randomized trials are scarce. AIM To evaluate docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (ARA)-supplementation of(More)
The RPGR (retinitis pigmentosa GTPase regulator) gene for RP3, the most frequent genetic subtype of X-linked retinitis pigmentosa (XLRP), has been shown to be mutated in 10%-15% of European XLRP patients. We have examined the RPGR gene for mutations in a cohort of 80 affected males from apparently unrelated XLRP families, by direct sequencing of the(More)
Retinal function was assessed by electroretinogram in 32 neonates randomly assigned to formulas of different omega-3 fatty acid content and in 10 infants fed human milk. All neonates had a birth weight of 1000-1500 g and were fed study diets from d 10 to 45 or discharge. Group A received formula containing predominantly 18:2 omega-6. Group B received a(More)
The need for a dietary supply of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic aid (AA) in term infants was evaluated in a double-masked randomized clinical trial of the effects of supplementation of term infant formula with DHA (0.35% of total fatty acids) or with DHA (0.36%) and AA (0.72%) on visual acuity development. One hundred and eight healthy term(More)
The effects of dietary docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supply during infancy on later cognitive development of healthy term infants were evaluated in a randomized clinical trial of infant formula milk supplemented with 0.35% DHA or with 0.36% DHA and 0.72% arachidonic acid (AA), or control formula which provided no DHA or AA. Fifty-six 18-month-old children (26(More)
Essential fatty acids are structural components of all tissues and are indispensable for cell membrane synthesis; the brain, retina and other neural tissues are particularly rich in long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA). These fatty acids serve as specific precursors for eicosanoids, which regulate numerous cell and organ functions. Recent human(More)
The concentrations of S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet), S-adenosylhomocysteine (AdoHcy), and various methyltransferases were determined in the cerebrum, cerebellum, and liver of rats during development and aging. The liver contained from 3 to 7 and from 10 to 15 nmol AdoHcy per gram in young and adult rats, respectively. The AdoMet concentration was 60 to 90(More)
X-linked retinitis pigmentosa (XLRP) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous degenerative disease of the retina. At least five loci have been mapped for XLRP; of these, RP2 and RP3 account for 10%-20% and 70%-90% of genetically identifiable disease, respectively. However, mutations in the respective genes, RP2 and RPGR, were detected in only 10% and(More)