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In the eye, visual information is segregated into modalities such as color and motion, these being transferred to the central brain through separate channels. Here, we genetically dissect the achromatic motion channel in the fly Drosophila melanogaster at the level of the first relay station in the brain, the lamina, where it is split into four parallel(More)
Learning and memory is not an attribute of higher animals. Even Drosophila larvae are able to form and recall an association of a given odor with an aversive or appetitive gustatory reinforcer. As the Drosophila larva has turned into a particularly simple model for studying odor processing, a detailed neuronal and functional map of the olfactory pathway is(More)
Drosophila larvae are able to evaluate sensory information based on prior experience, similarly to adult flies, other insect species, and vertebrates. Larvae and adult flies can be taught to associate odor stimuli with sugar reward, and prior work has implicated both the octopaminergic and the dopaminergic modulatory systems in reinforcement signaling. Here(More)
Insect mushroom bodies are required for diverse behavioral functions, including odor learning and memory. Using the numerically simple olfactory pathway of the Drosophila melanogaster larva, we provide evidence that the formation of appetitive olfactory associations relies on embryonic-born intrinsic mushroom body neurons (Kenyon cells). The participation(More)
Associative plasticity is a basic essential attribute of nervous systems. As shown by numerous reports, Drosophila is able to establish simple forms of appetitive and aversive olfactory associations at both larval and adult stages. Whereas most adult studies on aversive learning employed electric shock as a negative reinforcer, larval paradigms essentially(More)
The Drosophila larva has turned into a particularly simple model system for studying the neuronal basis of innate behaviors and higher brain functions. Neuronal networks involved in olfaction, gustation, vision and learning and memory have been described during the last decade, often up to the single-cell level. Thus, most of these sensory networks are(More)
Drosophila larvae combine a numerically simple brain, a correspondingly moderate behavioral complexity, and the availability of a rich toolbox for transgenic manipulation. This makes them attractive as a study case when trying to achieve a circuit-level understanding of behavior organization. From a series of behavioral experiments, we suggest a circuitry(More)
Vision is an ancient sense essential for various aspects of animal behavior. Visual information not only leads to immediate, temporary, and rapid behavioral responses but also has lasting effects. Naïve behavioral responses to light are not always identical but can be altered based on positive or negative experience-a process defined as visual learning. In(More)
The characteristic crawling behavior of Drosophila larvae consists of a series of rhythmic waves of peristalsis and episodes of head swinging and turning. The two biogenic amines octopamine and tyramine have recently been shown to modulate various parameters of locomotion, such as muscle contraction, the time spent in pausing or forward locomotion, and the(More)
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