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The evolutionary rates of proteins vary over several orders of magnitude. Recent work suggests that analysis of large data sets of evolutionary rates in conjunction with the results from high-throughput functional genomic experiments can identify the factors that cause proteins to evolve at such dramatically different rates. To this end, we estimated the(More)
Spontaneously arising (de novo) mutations have an important role in medical genetics. For diseases with extensive locus heterogeneity, such as autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), the signal from de novo mutations is distributed across many genes, making it difficult to distinguish disease-relevant mutations from background variation. Here we provide a(More)
BACKGROUND It has been shown for an evolutionarily distant genomic comparison that the number of protein-protein interactions a protein has correlates negatively with their rates of evolution. However, the generality of this observation has recently been challenged. Here we examine the problem using protein-protein interaction data from the yeast(More)
Physically interacting proteins or parts of proteins are expected to evolve in a coordinated manner that preserves proper interactions. Such coevolution at the amino acid-sequence level is well documented and has been used to predict interacting proteins, domains, and amino acids. Interacting proteins are also often precisely coexpressed with one another,(More)
Evolution at silent sites is often used to estimate the pace of selectively neutral processes or to infer differences in divergence times of genes. However, silent sites are subject to selection in favor of preferred codons, and the strength of such selection varies dramatically across genes. Here, we use the relationship between codon bias and synonymous(More)
The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Generic (ADOS) is one of the most widely used instruments for behavioral evaluation of autism spectrum disorders. It is composed of four modules, each tailored for a specific group of individuals based on their language and developmental level. On average, a module takes between 30 and 60 min to deliver. We used a(More)
The Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) is one of the most commonly used instruments for assisting in the behavioral diagnosis of autism. The exam consists of 93 questions that must be answered by a care provider within a focused session that often spans 2.5 hours. We used machine learning techniques to study the complete sets of answers to the(More)
All protein coding genes have a phylogenetic history that when understood can lead to deep insights into the diversification or conservation of function, the evolution of developmental complexity, and the molecular basis of disease. One important part to reconstructing the relationships among genes in different organisms is an accurate method to find(More)
microRNAs (miRNAs) are approximately 21 nt transcripts capable of regulating the expression of many mRNAs and are abundant in the brain. miRNAs have a role in several complex diseases including cancer as well as some neurological diseases such as Tourette's syndrome and Fragile x syndrome. As a genetically complex disease, dysregulation of miRNA expression(More)
With the identification of the molecular determinants of neuronal connectivity, our understanding of the extracellular information that controls axon guidance and synapse formation has evolved from single factors towards the complexity that neurons face in a living organism. As we move in this direction - ready to see the forest for the trees - attention is(More)