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| ountain snowpack in western North America is a key component of the hydrologic cycle, storing water from the winter (when most precipitation falls) and releasing it in spring and early summer , when economic, environmental, and recreational demands for water throughout the West are frequently greatest. In most river basins of the West, especially in(More)
A generalization of the single soil layer variable infiltration capacity (VIC) land surface hydrological model previously implemented in the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory general circulation model (GClVO is described. The new model is comprised of a two-layer characterization of the soil column, and uses an aerodynamic representation of the latent(More)
All currently available climate models predict a near-surface warming trend under the influence of rising levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. In addition to the direct effects on climate--for example, on the frequency of heatwaves--this increase in surface temperatures has important consequences for the hydrological cycle, particularly in regions(More)
The impacts of year-to-year and decade-to-decade climatic variations on some of the Pacific Northwest's key natural resources can be quantified to estimate sensitivity to regional climatic changes expected as part of anthropogenic global climatic change. Warmer, drier years, often associated with El Niño events and/or the warm phase of the Pacific Decadal(More)
HAPEX-MOBILHY data, consisting of one year of hourly atmospheric forcing data at Caumont (SAMER No. 3, 43.68°N, 0.1°W) were used repeatedly to run the two-layer Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC-2L) land-surface scheme until the model reached equilibrium in its water and energy balance. The equilibrium results are compared with one year of weekly soil(More)
T he hydrology of the Pacific Northwest (PNW) is particularly sensitive to changes in climate because seasonal runoff is dominated by snowmelt from cool season mountain snowpack, and temperature changes impact the balance of precipitation falling as rain and snow. Based on results from 39 global simulations performed for the Fourth Assessment Report of the(More)
S ystems for management of water throughout the developed world have been designed and operated under the assumption of stationarity. Stationarity—the idea that natural systems fluctuate within an unchanging envelope of variability—is a foundational concept that permeates training and practice in water-resource engineering. It implies that any variable(More)
Climate predictions from four state-of-the-art general circulation models (GCMs) were used to assess the hydrologic sensitivity to climate change of nine large, continental river basins and DOE-PCM3) all predicted transient climate response to changing greenhouse gas concentrations, and incorporated modern land surface parameterizations. Model-predicted(More)
[1] We explore a strategy for long-range hydrologic forecasting that uses ensemble climate model forecasts as input to a macroscale hydrologic model to produce runoff and streamflow forecasts at spatial and temporal scales appropriate for water management. Monthly ensemble climate model forecasts produced by the National Centers for Environmental(More)