Dennis M Levi

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The spatial analysis of a target may be strongly degraded by the simultaneous presentation of nearby pattern elements. The present study investigated the shape and extent of the region of interaction as a function of retinal location. The stimuli consisted of 3 collinear [symbol: see text] s which were randomly oriented up ([symbol: see text]) or down(More)
When a vernier target is flanked by optimally positioned lines, foveal vernier discrimination is strongly degraded (Westheimer and Hauske, 1975). We confirmed this observation (Experiment I) and have mapped out a 2 dimensional "perceptive field" for crowding in the fovea using a 2 dot target (Experiment II). Crowding was also measured in peripheral vision,(More)
Spatial interactions are extensive in the peripheral visual field, extending up to about half the retinal eccentricity of the target (Toet and Levi, Vision Res. 32, 1349-1357, 1992). In the present study it is shown that the degree and extent of peripheral spatial interaction depends in large measure on the similarity between test and flanking stimuli. The(More)
Practice improves discrimination of many basic visual features, such as contrast, orientation, and positional offset. Perceptual learning of many of these tasks is found to be retinal location specific, in that learning transfers little to an untrained retinal location. In most perceptual learning models, this location specificity is interpreted as a(More)
Crowding, the difficulty in recognizing a letter flanked by other letters, has been explained as a lateral masking effect. The purpose of this study was to examine the spatial-frequency and contrast dependencies of crowding, and to compare them with the properties of pattern masking. In experiment 1, we measured contrast thresholds for identifying the(More)
Crowding, the inability to recognize objects in clutter, sets a fundamental limit on conscious visual perception and object recognition throughout most of the visual field. Despite how widespread and essential it is to object recognition, reading and visually guided action, a solid operational definition of what crowding is has only recently become clear.(More)
Spatial interactions are a critical and ubiquitous feature of spatial vision. These interactions may be inhibitory (reducing sensitivity as occurs in crowding) or facilitatory (enhancing sensitivity). In this work, we had four goals. 1. To test the hypothesis that foveal crowding depends on target size by measuring the extent of crowding for novel targets(More)
Unlike most visual tasks, contrast discrimination has been reported to be unchanged by practice (Dorais & Sagi, 1997; Adini, Sagi, & Tsodyks, 2002), unless practice is undertaken in the presence of flankers (context-enabled learning, Adini et al., 2002). Here we show that under experimental conditions nearly identical to those in the no-flanker practice(More)
Visual perceptual learning models, as constrained by orientation and location specificities, propose that learning either reflects changes in V1 neuronal tuning or reweighting specific V1 inputs in either the visual cortex or higher areas. Here we demonstrate that, with a training-plus-exposure procedure, in which observers are trained at one orientation(More)