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OBJECTIVE To identify patients with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) who will need antenatal insulin treatment (AIT) by using a risk-prediction tool based on maternal clinical and biochemical characteristics at diagnosis. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Data from 3,009 women attending the Royal Prince Alfred Hospital GDM Clinic, Australia, between 1995 and(More)
OBJECTIVE We studied the relationships of diabetic ulcer wound fluid matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs), and transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) with wound healing rate. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The ulcers were cleansed to remove exudates, and wound fluids were collected for analysis of MMP-2 and(More)
OBJECTIVE Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) (specifically, (1)H-MRS) has been used to show changes in the brain following peripheral nerve injury in subjects without diabetes. This study used (1)H-MRS to examine the brain in subjects with or without painful diabetic neuropathy. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Twenty-six diabetic subjects (12 with and 14(More)
OBJECTIVE To test the hypothesis that age of type 2 diabetes onset influences inherent susceptibility to diabetic retinopathy, independent of disease duration and degree of hyperglycemia. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Retinopathy data from 624 patients with a type 2 diabetes duration of 20-30 years (group A) were analyzed by stratifying patients according(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate long-term clinical outcomes and survival in young-onset type 2 diabetes (T2DM) compared with type 1 diabetes (T1DM) with a similar age of onset. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Records from the Royal Prince Alfred Hospital Diabetes Clinical Database, established in 1986, were matched with the Australian National Death Index to establish(More)
D espite improved treatment, a significant number of diabetic foot ulcers do not heal and eventually lead to amputation (1–5). The important local factors determining the healing rate of ulcers are pressure at the site of the ulcer, adequacy of blood supply, and infection. It is generally accepted that for optimal healing, infection needs to be treated.(More)
High glucose concentrations can decrease degradation of mesangium by reducing the activities of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of glycation of mesangium matrix on MMP-2, the principal MMP secreted by mesangial cells to degrade type IV collagen. Also examined were membrane type 1 MMP (MT1-MMP), tissue(More)
OBJECTIVE The U.K. Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) has demonstrated that metformin is as effective as sulfonylureas in obese subjects and is associated with less weight gain, fewer hypoglycemic episodes, and better cardiovascular outcomes. It is hence the pharmacological therapy of choice in this subgroup. However, a gap in our present knowledge is the(More)
OBJECTIVE In women with hyperglycemia due to heterozygous glucokinase (GCK) mutations, the fetal genotype determines its growth. If the fetus inherits the mutation, birth weight is normal when maternal hyperglycemia is not treated, whereas intensive treatment may adversely reduce fetal growth. However, fetal genotype is not usually known antenatally, making(More)
Monocytes express many cell surface markers indicative of their inflammatory and activation status. Whether these markers are affected by diabetes and its complications is not known and was investigated in this study. Blood was obtained from 22 nondiabetic and 43 diabetic subjects with a duration of diabetes >10 years, including 25 without and 18 with(More)