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|This paper illustrates how software can be described precisely using LD-relations, how these descriptions can be presented in a readable manner using tabular notations, and one way such descriptions can be used to test programs. We describe an algorithm that can be used to generate a test oracle from program documentation, and present the results of using(More)
A fundamental assumption of software testing is that there is some mechanism, an oracle, that will determine whether or not the results of a test execution are correct. In practice this is often done by comparing the output, either automatically or manually, to some pre-calculated, presumably correct, output [17]. However, if the program is formally(More)
A course of daily plasma-exchange was undertaken in 3 patients with severe myasthenia gravis (M.G.) who had failed to respond to anticholinesterases, thymectomy, and steroids. In the 2 cases with acquired M.G., exchange was associated with an unequivocal improvement in muscle weakness and fatiguability, indicating that a humoral factor in plasma is directly(More)
We describe the design of an open ended set of tools for manipulating multi-dimensional tabular expressions. The heart of the toolset is a set of modules that makes it possible to add new tools to the toolset without having detailed knowledge of the other tools. This set of modules, the Tool Integration Framework, supports new and existing tools by(More)
— For some time now, researchers have been seeking to place software measurement on a more firmly grounded footing by establishing a theoretical basis for software comparison. Although there has been some work on trying to employ information theoretic concepts for the quantification of code documents, particularly on employing entropy and entropy-like(More)
Seven patients with Goodpasture's syndrome induced by anti-glomerular-basement-membrane (anti-G.B.M.) antibody were treated by a regimen of intensive plasma-exchange, cytotoxic drugs, and steroids. In the three patients retaining some renal function at presentation, this regimen led to suppression and eventual termination of antibody synthesis with(More)
In a study of HLA types in Caucasian patients with nephritis due to antibodies to glomerular basement membrane, antigen frequencies at A, B, or CW loci were normal. However, 15 out of 17 (88%) patients to whom DRW types were definitely assigned had HLA-DRW2 compared with 32 out of 100 Caucasian blood-donors. This difference is highly significant.