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|This paper illustrates how software can be described precisely using LD-relations, how these descriptions can be presented in a readable manner using tabular notations, and one way such descriptions can be used to test programs. We describe an algorithm that can be used to generate a test oracle from program documentation, and present the results of using(More)
A fundamental assumption of software testing is that there is some mechanism, an oracle, that will determine whether or not the results of a test execution are correct. In practice this is often done by comparing the output, either automatically or manually, to some pre-calculated, presumably correct, output [17]. However, if the program is formally(More)
— For some time now, researchers have been seeking to place software measurement on a more firmly grounded footing by establishing a theoretical basis for software comparison. Although there has been some work on trying to employ information theoretic concepts for the quantification of code documents, particularly on employing entropy and entropy-like(More)
We describe the design of an open ended set of tools for manipulating multi-dimensional tabular expressions. The heart of the toolset is a set of modules that makes it possible to add new tools to the toolset without having detailed knowledge of the other tools. This set of modules, the Tool Integration Framework, supports new and existing tools by(More)
—This paper describes the design of an efficient parallel implementation of an ice simulator that simulates the behaviour of a ship operating in pack ice. The main idea of the method is to treat ice as a set of discrete objects with very simple properties, and to model the system mechanics mainly as a set of discrete contact and failure events. In this way(More)
This paper illustrates how Test Oracles and Formal Speci¯cations, with appropriate tool support , can be used with Test-Driven Development (TDD). In TDD, the test code is a formal documentation of the required behavior of the component or system that is being developed, but this documentation is necessarily incomplete and often over-speci¯c. We describe an(More)