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A useful function of augmented reality (AR) systems is their ability to visualize occluded infrastructure directly in a user's view of the environment. This is especially important for our application context, which utilizes mobile AR for navigation and other operations in an urban environment. A key problem in the AR field is how to best depict occluded(More)
Mobile Augmented Reality Systems (MARS) have the potential to revolutionize the way in which information is provided to users. Virtual information can be directly integrated with the real world surrounding the mobile user, who can interact with it to display related information, to pose and resolve queries, and to collaborate with other users. However, we(More)
To achieve accurate registration, the transformations which locate the tracking system components with respect to the environment must be known. These transformations relate the base of the tracking system to the virtual world and the tracking system's sensor to the graphics display. In this paper we present a unified, general calibration method for(More)
This paper reports on user interface design and evaluation for a mobile, outdoor, augmented reality (AR) application. This novel system, called the Battlefield Augmented Reality System (BARS), supports information presentation and entry for situation awareness in an urban war fighting setting. To our knowledge , this is the first time extensive use of(More)
The full power of mobile augmented and virtual reality systems is realized when these systems are connected to one another, to immersive virtual environments, and to remote information servers. Connections are usually made through wireless networks. However, wireless networks cannot guarantee connectivity and their bandwidth can be highly constrained. In(More)
In this paper we describe two engineering experiments designed to evaluate the effectiveness of Measurand's ShapeTape for wearable, mobile interaction. Our initial results suggest that the ShapeTape is not appropriate for interactions which require a high degree of accuracy. However, ShapeTape is capable of reproducing the qualitative motion the user is(More)
Selection is a fundamental user operation in 3D environments. These environments often simulate or augment the real world, and a part of that simulation is the ability to select objects for observation and manipulation. Many user interfaces for these applications depend on six-degree-of-freedom tracking devices. Such devices have limited accuracy and are(More)