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A method for estimating structural properties of random media is described. The size, number density, and scattering strength of particles are estimated from an analysis of the radio frequency (rf) echo signal power spectrum. Simple correlation functions and the accurate scattering theory of Faran [J.J. Faran, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 23, 405-418 (1951)], which(More)
A useful function of augmented reality (AR) systems is their ability to visualize occluded infrastructure directly in a user's view of the environment. This is especially important for our application context, which utilizes mobile AR for navigation and other operations in an urban environment. A key problem in the AR field is how to best depict occluded(More)
Many future military operations are expected to occur in urban environments. These complex, 3D battlefields are extremely demanding and introduce many challenges to the dismounted warfighter. These include limited visibility, lack of familiarity with the environment, sniper threats, concealment of enemy forces, ineffective communications, and a general(More)
Mobile Augmented Reality Systems (MARS) have the potential to revolutionize the way in which information is provided to users. Virtual information can be directly integrated with the real world surrounding the mobile user, who can interact with it to display related information, to pose and resolve queries, and to collaborate with other users. However, we(More)
Many future military operations are expected to occur in urban environments. These complex, 3D battlefields introduce many challenges to the dismounted warfighter. Better situational awareness is required for effective operation in urban environments. However, delivering this information to the dismounted warfighter is extremely difficult. For example, maps(More)
This paper discusses our usability engineering process for the Battlefield Augmented Reality System (BARS). Usability engineering is a structured, iterative, stepwise development process. Like the related disciplines of software and systems engineering, usability engineering is a combination of management principals and techniques, formal and semi-formal(More)
To achieve accurate registration, the transformations which locate the tracking system components with respect to the environment must be known. These transformations relate the base of the tracking system to the virtual world and the tracking system's sensor to the graphics display. In this paper we present a unified, general calibration method for(More)
This paper reports on user interface design and evaluation for a mobile, outdoor, augmented reality (AR) application. This novel system, called the Battlefield Augmented Reality System (BARS), supports information presentation and entry for situation awareness in an urban war fighting setting. To our knowledge , this is the first time extensive use of(More)