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Cytoplasmic second messengers, Ca2+ and cAMP, regulate nerve growth cone turning responses induced by many guidance cues, but the causal relationship between these signaling pathways has been unclear. We here report that, for growth cone turning induced by a gradient of myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG), cAMP acts by modulating MAG-induced Ca2+(More)
BACKGROUND The up-regulation of CCAAT/enhancer binding protein delta (CEBPD) has frequently been observed in macrophages in age-associated disorders, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, the role of macrophage CEBPD in the pathogenesis of RA is unclear. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS We found that the collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) score(More)
BACKGROUND Neurons are one of the most structurally and functionally diverse cell types found in nature, owing in large part to their unique class specific dendritic architectures. Dendrites, being highly specialized in receiving and processing neuronal signals, play a key role in the formation of functional neural circuits. Hence, in order to understand(More)
BACKGROUND As the primary sites of synaptic or sensory input in the nervous system, dendrites play an essential role in processing neuronal and sensory information. Moreover, the specification of class specific dendrite arborization is critically important in establishing neural connectivity and the formation of functional networks. Cytoskeletal modulation(More)
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is the fourth most common cause of cancer death in North America. Activating KRAS mutations and Smad4 loss occur in approximately 90% and 55% of PDAC, respectively. While their roles in the early stages of PDAC development have been confirmed in genetically modified mouse models, their roles in the multistep malignant(More)
BACKGROUND The large airways of the lungs (trachea and bronchi) are lined with a pseudostratified mucociliary epithelium, which is maintained by stem cells/progenitors within the basal cell compartment. Alterations in basal cell behavior can contribute to large airway diseases including squamous cell carcinomas (SQCCs). Basal cells have traditionally been(More)
Although cancers are considered stem cell diseases, mechanisms involving stem cell alterations are poorly understood. Squamous cell carcinoma (SQCC) is the second most common lung cancer, and its pathogenesis appears to hinge on changes in the stem cell behavior of basal cells in the bronchial airways. Basal cells are normally quiescent and differentiate(More)
Altered immune response may be a part of the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. The few epidemiologic studies that have investigated the associations between genetic variations in the complement system genes and preeclampsia risk have reached inconsistent results. The aim of this study is to determine if polymorphisms in the complement system genes could(More)
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