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Midbrain dopaminergic (DA) neurons fire bursts of activity in response to sensory stimuli, including those associated with primary reward. They are therefore conditional bursters - the bursts conveying, amongst other things, motivationally relevant information to the forebrain. In the forebrain, bursts give rise to a supra-additive release of dopamine, and(More)
Evidence suggests that excitatory amino acid-containing afferents from the prefrontal cortex (PFC) play an important role in the induction of burst firing in midbrain dopaminergic (DA) neurons. In the present study, the extracellular activity of individual DA neurons (A10 and A9 cell groups) was recorded during single pulse electrical stimulation (0.25 and(More)
Its controversial past notwithstanding, psychopathy has emerged as one of the most important clinical constructs in the criminal justice and mental health systems. One reason for the surge in theoretical and applied interest in the disorder is the development and widespread adoption of reliable and valid methods for its measurement. The Hare PCL-R provides(More)
Extracellular single-unit recording and iontophoresis were used to examine the effect of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and the competitive NMDA antagonist (+/-)-4-(3-phosphonopropyl)-2-piperazine carboxylic acid (CPP) on the firing rate and firing pattern of A9 dopamine (DA) neurons in the rat. Administration of NMDA produced a dose-dependent increase in(More)
Evidence suggests that a process analogous to long-term potentiation (LTP) may underlie the enhanced behavioural responses attending chronic administration of amphetamine and cocaine in animals (behavioural sensitization). Augmented excitatory amino acid (EAA)-mediated transmission at the level of midbrain dopamine neurons has been implicated as a change(More)
Stimulation of the medial prefrontal cortex in the rat produces events in midbrain dopaminergic neurons which resemble natural bursts, and which are closely time-locked to the stimulation, albeit with a very long latency. As a consequence, we have previously argued that such bursts are polysynaptically generated via more proximal excitatory amino acidergic(More)
OBJECTIVES To determine the problems and issues of accessing specialist palliative care by patients, informal carers and health and social care professionals involved in their care in primary and secondary care settings. DATA SOURCES Eleven electronic databases (medical, health-related and social science) were searched from the beginning of 1997 to(More)
The behaviour of rats in a novel environment was studied using a rapid time-sampling observation procedure followed by a principal component analysis (PCA) of the data. This approach revealed that novel environment behaviour can be described by two factors or principal components. The first factor comprised rearing, sniffing-up, ambulation and locomotion(More)
The behavioural, biochemical, neuroendocrinological and electrophysiological actions of the enantiomers of the dopamine (DA) analogue 3-(3-hydroxyphenyl)-N-n-propylpiperidine, 3-PPP, are extensively reviewed. (+)-3-PPP acts in a fashion similar to classical direct-acting DA agonists, stimulating both DA autoreceptors and postsynaptic DA receptors, although(More)