Dennis A. Holt

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FKBP ligand homodimers can be used to activate signaling events inside cells and animals that have been engineered to express fusions between appropriate signaling domains and FKBP. However, use of these dimerizers in vivo is potentially limited by ligand binding to endogenous FKBP. We have designed ligands that bind specifically to a mutated FKBP over the(More)
Gene therapy was originally conceived as a medical intervention to replace or correct defective genes in patients with inherited disorders. However, it may have much broader potential as an alternative delivery platform for protein therapeutics, such as cytokines, hormones, antibodies and novel engineered proteins. One key technical barrier to the(More)
A system for direct pharmacologic control of protein secretion was developed to allow rapid and pulsatile delivery of therapeutic proteins. A protein was engineered so that it accumulated as aggregates in the endoplasmic reticulum. Secretion was then stimulated by a synthetic small-molecule drug that induces protein disaggregation. Rapid and transient(More)
Chemically induced dimerization provides a general way to gain control over intracellular processes. Typically, FK506-binding protein (FKBP) domains are fused to a signaling domain of interest, allowing crosslinking to be initiated by addition of a bivalent FKBP ligand. In the course of protein engineering studies on human FKBP, we discovered that a single(More)
The use of low molecular weight organic compounds to induce dimerization or oligomerization of engineered proteins has wide-ranging utility in biological research as well as in gene and cell therapies. Chemically induced dimerization can be used to activate intracellular signal transduction pathways or to control the activity of a bipartite transcription(More)
Using structure-based design and protein mutagenesis we have remodeled the FKBP12 ligand binding site to include a sizable, hydrophobic specificity pocket. This mutant (F36V-FKBP) is capable of binding, with low or subnanomolar affinities, novel synthetic ligands possessing designed substituents that sterically prevent binding to the wild-type protein.(More)
Lead optimization of piperidine amide HTS hits, based on an anilino-thiazole core, led to the identification of analogs which displayed low nanomolar blocking activity at the canonical transient receptor channels 3 and 6 (TRPC3 & 6) based on FLIPR (carbachol stimulated) and electrophysiology (OAG stimulated) assays. In addition, the anilino-thiazole amides(More)
Benign prostatic hyperplasia is an androgen-dependent disease which afflicts a large percentage of males over the age of fifty, and is usually treated by surgery. Dihydrotestosterone, a 5 alpha-reduced metabolite of testosterone, has been implicated as a causative factor in the progression of the disease, largely through the clinical study of males who are(More)
The Cynomolgus monkey may provide an alternative pharmacological model in which to evaluate the efficacy of novel inhibitors of the two known human steroid 5 alpha-reductase (SR) isoenzymes. To evaluate the suitability of this species at the level of the molecular targets, a Cynomolgus monkey prostate cDNA library was prepared and screened using human SR(More)
New synthetic chemical inducers of dimerization, comprising homodimeric FKBP ligands with engineered specificity for the designed point mutant F36V, have been evaluated for inducing targeted gene expression in mammalian cells. Structure-activity studies indicated that high-affinity dimerizers such as AP1903 are ineffective, perhaps due to kinetic trapping(More)