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FKBP ligand homodimers can be used to activate signaling events inside cells and animals that have been engineered to express fusions between appropriate signaling domains and FKBP. However, use of these dimerizers in vivo is potentially limited by ligand binding to endogenous FKBP. We have designed ligands that bind specifically to a mutated FKBP over the(More)
A system for direct pharmacologic control of protein secretion was developed to allow rapid and pulsatile delivery of therapeutic proteins. A protein was engineered so that it accumulated as aggregates in the endoplasmic reticulum. Secretion was then stimulated by a synthetic small-molecule drug that induces protein disaggregation. Rapid and transient(More)
Violacein is a purple-colored, broad-spectrum antibacterial pigment that has a dimeric structure composed of 5-hydroxyindole, oxindole and 2-pyyrolidone subunits formed by the condensation of two modified tryptophan molecules. The violacein biosynthetic gene cluster from Chromobacterium violaceum was characterized by DNA sequencing, transposon mutagenesis,(More)
The use of low molecular weight organic compounds to induce dimerization or oligomerization of engineered proteins has wide-ranging utility in biological research as well as in gene and cell therapies. Chemically induced dimerization can be used to activate intracellular signal transduction pathways or to control the activity of a bipartite transcription(More)
Gene therapy was originally conceived as a medical intervention to replace or correct defective genes in patients with inherited disorders. However, it may have much broader potential as an alternative delivery platform for protein therapeutics, such as cytokines, hormones, antibodies and novel engineered proteins. One key technical barrier to the(More)
Chemically induced dimerization provides a general way to gain control over intracellular processes. Typically, FK506-binding protein (FKBP) domains are fused to a signaling domain of interest, allowing crosslinking to be initiated by addition of a bivalent FKBP ligand. In the course of protein engineering studies on human FKBP, we discovered that a single(More)
Natural products have been a critically important source of clinically relevant small molecule therapeutics. However, the discovery rate of novel structural classes of antimicrobial molecules has declined. Recently, increasing evidence has shown that the number of species cultivated from soil represents less than 1% of the total population, opening up the(More)
Benign prostatic hyperplasia is an androgen-dependent disease which afflicts a large percentage of males over the age of fifty, and is usually treated by surgery. Dihydrotestosterone, a 5 alpha-reduced metabolite of testosterone, has been implicated as a causative factor in the progression of the disease, largely through the clinical study of males who are(More)
New synthetic chemical inducers of dimerization, comprising homodimeric FKBP ligands with engineered specificity for the designed point mutant F36V, have been evaluated for inducing targeted gene expression in mammalian cells. Structure-activity studies indicated that high-affinity dimerizers such as AP1903 are ineffective, perhaps due to kinetic trapping(More)
The Cynomolgus monkey may provide an alternative pharmacological model in which to evaluate the efficacy of novel inhibitors of the two known human steroid 5 alpha-reductase (SR) isoenzymes. To evaluate the suitability of this species at the level of the molecular targets, a Cynomolgus monkey prostate cDNA library was prepared and screened using human SR(More)