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Delivery of therapeutic genes to a large region of the retina with minimal damage from intraocular surgery is a central goal of treatment for retinal degenerations. Recent studies have shown that AAV9 can reach the central nervous system (CNS) and retina when administered systemically to neonates, which is a promising strategy for some retinal diseases. We(More)
Inherited retinal degenerative diseases are a clinically promising focus of adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated gene therapy. These diseases arise from pathogenic mutations in mRNA transcripts expressed in the eye's photoreceptor cells or retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), leading to cell death and structural deterioration. Because current gene delivery(More)
The natural tropism of most viral vectors, including adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors, leads to predominant transduction of neurons and epithelia within the central nervous system (CNS) and retina. Despite the clinical relevance of glia for homeostasis in neural tissue, and as causal contributors in genetic disorders such as Alzheimer's and amyotrophic(More)
Nogo-A, an axonal growth inhibitory protein known to be mostly present in CNS myelin, was upregulated in retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) after optic nerve injury in adult mice. Nogo-A increased concomitantly with the endoplasmic reticulum stress (ER stress) marker C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP), but CHOP immunostaining and the apoptosis marker annexin V did(More)
Most inherited retinal dystrophies display progressive photoreceptor cell degeneration leading to severe visual impairment. Optogenetic reactivation of retinal neurons mediated by adeno-associated virus (AAV) gene therapy has the potential to restore vision regardless of patient-specific mutations. The challenge for clinical translatability is to restore a(More)
The optic nerve crush injury is a well-accepted model to study the mechanisms of axonal regeneration after trauma in the CNS. The infection of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) with an adeno-associated virus serotype 2 - ciliary neurotrophic factor (AAV2.CNTF) was previously shown to stimulate axonal regeneration. However, the transfection of axotomized neurons(More)
Nogo-A is a well-known myelin-enriched inhibitory protein for axonal growth and regeneration in the central nervous system (CNS). Besides oligodendrocytes, our previous data revealed that Nogo-A is also expressed in subpopulations of neurons including retinal ganglion cells, in which it can have a positive role in the neuronal growth response after injury,(More)
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 6 (SCA6) is linked to poly-glutamine (polyQ) within the C terminus (CT) of the pore-forming subunits of P/Q-type Ca(2+) channels (Cav2.1) and is characterized by CT protein aggregates found in cerebellar Purkinje cells (PCs). One hypothesis regarding SCA6 disease is that a CT fragment of the Cav2.1 channel, which is detected(More)
BACKGROUND The pathologies of numerous retinal degenerative diseases can be attributed to a multitude of genetic factors, and individualized treatment options for afflicted patients are limited and cost-inefficient. In light of the shared neurodegenerative phenotype among these disorders, a safe and broad-based neuroprotective approach would be desirable to(More)
Inherited retinal degeneration results from many different mutations in either photoreceptor-specific or nonphotoreceptor-specific genes. However, nearly all mutations lead to a common blinding phenotype that initiates with rod cell death, followed by loss of cones. In most retinal degenerations, other retinal neuron cell types survive for long periods(More)