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A major cause of the cerebral cortex expansion that occurred during evolution is the increase in subventricular zone (SVZ) progenitors. We found that progenitors in the outer SVZ (OSVZ) of developing human neocortex retain features of radial glia, in contrast to rodent SVZ progenitors, which have limited proliferation potential. Although delaminating from(More)
Subventricular zone (SVZ) progenitors are a hallmark of the developing neocortex. Recent studies described a novel type of SVZ progenitor that retains a basal process at mitosis, sustains expression of radial glial markers, and is capable of self-renewal. These progenitors, referred to here as basal radial glia (bRG), occur at high relative abundance in the(More)
Fibronectin (FN) is a major component of the extracellular matrix and functions in cell adhesion, cell spreading and cell migration. In the retina, FN is transiently expressed and assembled on astrocytes (ACs), which guide sprouting tip cells and deposit a provisional matrix for sprouting angiogenesis. The precise function of FN in retinal angiogenesis is(More)
How individual components of the vascular basement membrane influence endothelial cell behaviour remains unclear. Here we show that laminin α4 (Lama4) regulates tip cell numbers and vascular density by inducing endothelial Dll4/Notch signalling in vivo. Lama4 deficiency leads to reduced Dll4 expression, excessive filopodia and tip cell formation in the(More)
During vascular development, endothelial platelet-derived growth factor B (PDGF-B) is critical for pericyte recruitment. Deletion of the conserved C-terminal heparin-binding motif impairs PDGF-BB retention and pericyte recruitment in vivo, suggesting a potential role for heparan sulfate (HS) in PDGF-BB function during vascular development. We studied the(More)
A common feature of many chlamydial infections is that they are often asymptomatic and may persist for long periods of time if left untreated. In addition to the well recognized lytic stage of the chlamydial developmental cycle, evidence is now emerging to support a persistent phase in the cycle in which the reticulate bodies are morphologically abnormal,(More)
Blood vessel maturation and stability require recruitment of mural cells (MCs) to the nascent vessel. Loss or detachment of MCs causes vascular dysfunction in diseases. N-sulfation of heparan sulfate (HS) is required for platelet-derived growth factor B (PDGF-B) retention and platelet-derived growth factor receptor-beta (PDGFR-beta) signaling during MC(More)
We have established an in vitro model of long-term continuous Chlamydia pneumoniae infection in HEp-2 cells. Using transmission electron microscopy, we demonstrated the presence of spontaneous abnormal chlamydial inclusions similar in appearance to the persistent chlamydial forms induced in vitro by treatment with cytokines or antibiotics or by nutrient(More)
The importance of thyroid hormones during brain development has been appreciated for many decades. In humans, low levels of circulating maternal thyroid hormones, e.g., caused by maternal hypothyroidism or lack of iodine in diet, results in a wide spectrum of severe neurological defects, including neurological cretinism characterized by profound neurologic(More)
Neocortex expansion during evolution is associated with the enlargement of the embryonic subventricular zone, which reflects an increased self-renewal and proliferation of basal progenitors. In contrast to human, the vast majority of mouse basal progenitors lack self-renewal capacity, possibly due to lack of a basal process contacting the basal lamina and(More)
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