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Today's window systems present the information in a graphical and thereby a spatial manner making the text-only access of a standard Braille device insufficient to enable blind users an equivalent exploration of the data. In this paper we present the planar Braille Window System (BWS) designed for a tactile display consisting of a pin-matrix of 120 columns(More)
Screen magnification is an important means to support visually impaired people when working with computers. Many improvements have been made on appropriate software. But unfortunately, in the last years, those improvements where mainly in realization detail. A number of problems remain, that, to our minds, need conceptual rethinking. In this paper, we(More)
Proximity-based interaction through a long cane is essential for the blind and the visually impaired. We designed and implemented an obstacle detector consisting of a 3D Time-of-Flight (TOF) camera and a planar tactile display to extend the interaction range and provide rich non-visual information about the environment. Users choose a better path after(More)
The Tangram Workstation is a collaborative system for creating tactile graphics. A transcriber composing a tactile graphic from a visual source is supported by a non-visual reviewer on a two-dimensional tactile pin-matrix device on which he can observe and adapt the work of his sighted team member. We present the results of an evaluation with eight teams,(More)
Reading characters by fingers depends on the tactile features of the medium in use. Braille displays were often found to be slower than Braille on paper. We study reading Braille on a novel planar tactile display by conducting three reading tests. A first study compares the reading speed on four different devices, namely paper, 40 cell Braille display and(More)