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OBJECTIVE To determine the prevalence of intensive care unit-acquired infections, a major cause of morbidity in pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) patients. METHODS Pediatric Prevention Network hospitals (n = 31) participated in a point-prevalence survey on August 4, 1999. Data collected for all PICU inpatients included demographics, infections,(More)
OBJECTIVES Patients admitted to neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) are at high risk of nosocomial infection. We conducted a national multicenter assessment of nosocomial infections in NICUs to determine the prevalence of infections, describe associated risk factors, and help focus prevention efforts. STUDY DESIGN We conducted a point prevalence survey(More)
reviewed these guidelines and provided useful comments. Presently, disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) is the leading cause of mortality among adults in the world. Populations in resource-limited settings account for nearly 95% of M. tuberculosis infections, with the global burden due to infection of M. tuberculosis being(More)
BACKGROUND Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are the major cause of nosocomial bloodstream infection. Emergence of vancomycin resistance among CNS is a serious public health concern, because CNS usually are multidrug-resistant, and glycopeptide antibiotics, among which only vancomycin is available in the United States, are the only remaining effective(More)
BACKGROUND The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) fuels tuberculosis (TB) epidemics. In controlled clinical trials, antiretroviral therapy (ART) reduces TB incidence in HIV-infected patients. In this study we determine if, under programmatic conditions, Brazil's policy of universal ART access has impacted TB incidence among HIV-infected patients. METHODS(More)
SETTING Four general Brazilian hospitals. OBJECTIVE To assess the occupational risk of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) in participating hospitals. DESIGN In phase one of this longitudinal study, a cross-sectional survey documented baseline tuberculin skin test (TST) positivity rates. In phase two, TST conversion rates were evaluated in participants with(More)
RATIONALE IFN-γ release assays (IGRAs) are alternatives to tuberculin skin testing (TST) for diagnosis of latent tuberculosis infection. Limited data suggest IGRAs may not perform well for serial testing of healthcare workers (HCWs). OBJECTIVES Determine the performance characteristics of IGRAs versus TST for serial testing of HCWs. METHODS A(More)
BACKGROUND Nosocomial infections have been recognized as a source of morbidity and mortality throughout the world for several decades. In the United States, an estimated 2.1 million nosocomial infections occur annually in acute care hospitals alone. Infection surveillance and control programs (ISCPs) play a vital role in addressing this problem, but no(More)
OBJECTIVE The number of immunocompromised patients in hospitals has increased, resulting in a concomitant increase in the number of Aspergillus spp infections, with an exceedingly high death rate. From January 1995 through June 1996, 7 patients acquired invasive aspergillosis at a Maryland hospital (Hospital A). No cases had been detected in 1994. METHODS(More)